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This paper covers the diagnostic methods used in the diagnosis of avian flu, a viral infection that is associated with certain species of birds. It is a severe infection that spreads incredibly fast. Besides birds, the infection also affects humans. The most common methods that are used in diagnosis and in determining the type of infection before it spreads are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunoblot analysis, and ELIZA technique, which cover simple procedures. Their advantages and disadvantages, together with the results interpretation, are discussed in this paper.
The overall results of the analysis as per the PCR test the bird with label 2-was found to be infected with avian flu virus. This can be linked to the reduced egg laying ability of the birds due to the illness and subsequently the biological process of egg formation was possibly altered. On the immune blot analysis the patient card number 2 was diagnosed to be having avian flu. The dot s formed was found to correspond to the positive control of the test. This is an indication of infection since the test is based on the presence of specific antibodies to the avian flu viruses. The possible complains presented by the villager’s over the illness invading the members of the village is avian flu virus infection. The fact that it is air bone infection it is transmissible by droplets that are excreted by the sneezing and the rate of infection is rapid hence a large number of complainants at once.
As for the ELISA the quantity of the antibody is determine by color development principle of this test. Patient card two was recorded to have highest titers (1:1600) of the antibodies’ in the blood. This is an indication of disease progression. Compared to the first patient card number 1 whose titers were low (1:100), this explains why the test did not reflect positive with immunoblot analysis the disease in this patient had not progressed to a minimum threshold of detection by immunoblot test. Regarding these results the test that is recommended for the quick diagnosis is therefore PCR because of its sensitivity and ELIAS is considered reliable for antibody quantification of antibodies and estimation of level of disease progression.
In cases of outbreaks, the laboratory becomes the most important department of any health facility. It helps in identification of the causative agent that has attacked the complainants. The need to keep surveillance is also linked to the laboratory. Immunoblot analysis, ELIZA techniques, and PCR are used in the identification of the type of the pathogen for the infection in question. The problem at hand, in this case, is the outbreak of the avian flu from the poultry farmer who has noticed a reduction in the egg production in a while and. Determination of the presence of disease or infection for viral diseases is done by detecting antibodies in the system of patients. The detection of the nucleic acid segments is applied for reasons that are aligned to the accuracy of the techniques used. The amplification of nucleic acids segments applied in the PCR allows the method to detect even the lowest possible infection. PCR is used to detect nucleic acid of the suspected organism in the blood sample of the patient or infected animal (Anon, 2004). Immunoblot techniques are used to detect the presence of antibodies in the patient’s blood system by the use of known antigens directed to detect corresponding antibodies; such techniques are only effective after the disease has progressed (Kist, 1999). The two techniques are used to detect early infection and are mostly employed for the detection of unknown infections. In instances where the surveillance and the determination of the infection are required, PCR and immunoblot techniques are used to secure the accuracy and efficiency of the testing (Anon, 2007).