Alcoholism runs in families. Dr. Pinsky showed that alcoholism is a serious problem within our modern society and it should be cured correctly with respect to emotion of alcoholics. The writer makes to ask ourselves: Why people become alcoholics? And how we can help to return to normal life? Dr. Pinsky consider alcoholism to be a chronic illness or disease that is marked by an uncontrolled consumption of alcoholic beverages despite its interference with one's physical or mental health, and social, family, or occupational responsibilities. It is actually a drug addiction, which is also referred to as alcohol dependence. Dr. Pinsky through his prolific experience as drug counselor proclaims that in order to cure alcoholism we need to understand the origin of the disease. Dr. Pinsky shows that the development of alcoholism usually occurs over a period of between five and twenty-five years, and generally follows a fairly consistent pattern of progression. Although the statistics vary, studies do show that the incidence of alcoholism is increasing, and that about seven percent of adults in the United States alone are affected by it. However, Dr. Drew Pinsky's research for a cure for alcoholism is slowed by the fact that experts still dispute what individual or combination of factors actually cause the disease. In Dr. Pinsky's book "Putting Broken Lives Together Again" attempt to present and analyze the major possible causes of alcoholism, genetics and environment, and then discuss the conclusion reached through the evidence presented, that alcoholism is caused by a complicated interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. One of the major problems that Dr. Pinsky have discussed in his book was the effect of alcoholism on our families. The observation that alcoholism tends to run in families has been confirmed by numerous Dr.Pinsky's studies. In doing so, he found substantial agreement among the studies that an alcoholic is much more likely than a nonalcoholic to have a parent or other relative who is also an alcoholic. In fact, two-thirds of the studies found that at least twenty-five percent of the alcoholics studied had alcoholic fathers. Therefore, based on his review, Dr. Pinsky estimated that, on average, one-third of any sample of alcoholics has at least one parent who is also an alcoholic. However, this does not account for the possibility that a parent could be a carrier of alcoholic genes, and yet not be an alcoholic. No studies were found on alcoholism in individuals who were at high-risk due to having an alcoholic grandparent, so the results of this influence on alcoholism are not yet know. However, the evidence that alcoholism runs in families is not necessarily evidence for a strictly genetic cause of the disease. For, traits that are familiar may be passed down from generation to generation by genetic factors or by environmental factors caused by close social contact and cohabitation. Alcoholism as Caused by an Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Factors Research has produced evidence that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to alcoholism, and that the interaction of genetic and environmental factors is emerging as a fundamentally important issue in the search for the cause of alcoholism. As yet, the specific gene or genes involved have not been identified and the mechanisms by which genetic transmission occurs have yet to be defined. Likewise, the specific environmental risk factors are not known, although Dr. Pinsky does suggest possible childhood antecedents of alcoholism as well as potential psychological and social mechanisms related to drinking behavior and to the process of becoming dependent. It is most plausible that the relative contribution of genetics or environment to the expression of alcoholism in any given individual will vary depending on a number of factors including the subtype of alcoholism. For example, one form of alcoholism appears to be highly dependent on genetic factors, another form appears to require both specific genetic and environmental factors, and there are also cases of alcoholism without any obvious genetic factors. ...
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