Management refers to an act of organizing and co-ordinating of activities under specified policies, in order to achieve a certain goal. Management and leadership go hand-in-hand. In many learning institutions, management courses are offered to help students in their specific areas of study. Issues like accounting, marketing, sales, leadership, economics, and many others require professional managerial knowledge.

There are different ways to embrace uncertainty. Those who are less tolerant of uncertainty or ambiguity are usually more supportive and avoid conflicts. These people are able to cope with external threats. The threats can be macro-economic factors, technological and socio-cultural changes, legislation and competitive position changes.

For management in an organization to be effective, it has to involve some concepts. It must involve planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling a group of people who are striving to achieve a specific objective. Planning involves determining the issue at hand, analysing it, and coming up with ways in which the target can be reached.

Organizing involves allocation of tasks and chores to various people, and considering the resources that may be needed. Directing involves leading others to execute the desired task. This ought to go along with emphasizing the importance of achieving the set goal. It is advisable for a leader to participate himself/herself. This is known to motivate workers.

Controlling is an important aspect of positive management. It involves making sure that all the above concepts have been covered before the final execution. It includes dealing with difficult people and ensuring the employees love their work. Only when motivated, will the employees give their best, and this reflects quality management. Hence, quality management is when a company satisfies customers fully, thus enhancing good relations. This is possible only when the above management aspects are followed (Dale, 1969).

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There are three levels of management in any organisation. They are:

  1. Top level management – they are mainly a Board of Directors, President, Vice president, C.E.O, and others. These people are responsible for overlooking and making decsions for the whole organisation.
  2. Middle level management – consists of general managers, branch managers, and department managers. They are responsible for the management of various operations at their departments.
  3. Low level management – made up of supervisors, foremen, section heads, and others. They oversee the daily activities and the quality and quantity of production.

In management courses, essential skills are required for every manager. The most important of them are:

  1. Conceptual skills – they deal with the ability to be innovative and creative, to be able to find the cause of a problem and solve it. They help in creating goals for an organization. These skills are crucialfor top-level managers.
  2. Human relation skills – deal with how well one can relate to other people. He/she must be able to keep a good relationship with other members of a company. It is required for all levels of management.
  3. Technical skills – these involve having sufficient knowledge to work using different equipment to perform specific tasks. With the high rate in which technology is upcoming, more technology management is required. It assists IT professionals and managers to advance their skills with the use of technology.

As a rule, managerial courses teach students about management thematically. For instance, it may be taught that one has to possess people skills. This means that they should be able to communicate in an effective manner and relate well to one another. The course may also that future managers must have knowledge of the use of resources. Time management is an important topic in the course as well. Apart from managing one’s team, a manager should also be able to manage himself or herself. are also taught how to negotiate and manage people of various backgrounds.

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There is another management course that is recently coming up fast. It is the international management. It teaches students how to relate with people from different places all around the world. Leadership and management are similar but still differ by the definition.

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