The Bhakti movement was premised on peaceful reforms in societal and religious growth. The establishment of the Bhakti movement was critical to enforcing tolerance in the masses; therefore, the emphasis on devotion as the sole means of spiritual salvation was a key tenet in the movement’s doctrines. The Bhakti movement emphasizes on communal unity in worship without discriminatory segregation between social groups or castes (Singh 17). Hence the movement’s critical features; which distinguished the Bhakti and other Hindu movements.
The movement’s principles ebbed on the aspects of attaining salvation through defined distinct means; the attainment of salvation through submission to God and illustration of selflessness in an individual’s devotion and unconditional love for God. Hence an individual’s empathetic perspective illustrated through charitable and positive actions towards the needy in society critically contributes to the attainment of salvation. Therefore, attainment of salvation is a process of self sacrifice and absolute submission to God; while being enlightened through learning and understanding the critical tenets and doctrines towards salvation (Singh 28). The Bhakti movement was significant to the lower classes where illiteracy and poverty manifested. The notable saints of the movement were instrumental in the creation of a reformed society where the poor and lower class people were considered as equals in the attainment of godliness.
The Bhakti movement illustrates significant deviations with the Great tradition religion. The Great tradition religious aspect of Hinduism aligns towards Brahmanism; Given that Brahmans are characterized by the upper caste groups which are awarded significant social privileges in contrast to the other middle and lower castes. The great tradition ebbs towards philosophical ideologies, which are refined in their illustration of regional variations (Singh 12). These place emphasis on unity as illustrated by pervasive relativism and religious diversity in societal groupings. However, the Bhakti movement does not place social preference to any designate social group nor does it impose segregation according to castes, social class or regional context (Singh 17).
The Bhakti movement emphasizes the fundamental unity in human kind spirit despite caste alignments or social grouping. Critical distinctions are illustrated between the Bhakti movement and other conceptions of Hinduism. For instance, the Bhakti movement emphasizes on unity amongst its adherents and does not conform to divisive doctrines in lieu of castes, regions or social groupings (Singh 67). The Movement was premised on the opinion that Caste distinctions and Brahmanic ceremonies were irrelevant to the attainment of salvation; however, other conceptions of Hinduism like Vedic and Puranic conceptions emphasize on traditional observation of the caste systems in their religious groupings.
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The observation of rituals and religious ceremonies is critical to other conceptions of Hinduism. However, the Bhakti movement, as the works of Sri Chaitaya a Bhakti poet illustrates; abhors the observation of these while reiterating the significance of expressing love for God. The Bhakti’s religious beliefs were centered on Krishna and Rama, while the other Conceptions were aligned towards the doctrines of Siva and Vishnu (Singh 91). The doctrines of self sacrifice in pursuit of salvation through illustration of God’s love are significantly illustrated in Sri Chaitaya’s poetry.
The British and the Mughal empires are significant the Cultural, social and economic history of India. The two empires premised themselves in colonizing the indigenous inhabitants of India; while critically factoring to the economic progress of the region. The Mughal empires contribution towards Indian history is manifested in the architectural uniqueness and art (Kulke 168). The political amalgamation of the smaller kingdoms in the Indian sub-continent to form a centralized governing body; depicts the Mughal’s public management relevance in maintaining a cohesive society. Similarly, the British governed the Indian sub-continent through a defined hierarchical political structure. This stipulated the responsibilities of each administrative unit towards the other units, governors and the Queen of England.
The Mughal Empire facilitated the integration of the Indian and the Persian arts and cultures to create a unified cultural atmosphere (Kulke 183). This created uniformity of purpose hence social-cultural development was realized. The British facilitated social reforms; where social, political and legislative reforms were sought. These aimed at safeguarding the plight of the socially discriminated while advocating for measures aimed at mitigating the effects of social segregation of individuals considered as untouchable.
Critically the Mughal Empire opened trade routes Turkic and Arabic regions. These trade routes were critical to the empire’s economic development. Trade relations enabled the population to trade their products enabling significant economic progress; hence the empires wealth and power increased. The consideration of the native’s perspectives on economic and social aspects endeared the populace towards the empire; hence, the political and economic stability. Similarly, the British Empire impressed upon modernization while facilitating the development of educational and legal structures in furtherance of their economic agendas. The British Empire facilitated the creation of industrial and agricultural initiatives like irrigation projects and the creation of the Indian railway (Kulke 14). These structures aimed at furthering India’s economic development through technological revolution; hence creating an intimate economic relationship between the Great Britain and the Indian economy.
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Despite the end of the British and Mughal empires, their contribution towards the Indian culture and heritage are presently evident. For instance, the architectural monuments and structures like the Taj Mahal erected during the Mughal Empire’s reign significant indicators of Indian heritage. While, the British Empire created administrative and governing structure which are used up to date. The economic significance of the British Empire has defined India’s economic infrastructures as illustrated by the Indian railway. Therefore, the two empires were critical to India’s current, cultural, social-economic and political structures; hence their contributions towards the development of the modern Indian social-economic and cultural dispensation.
The maintenance of control and order is critical for any empire facing opposition or resistance. Therefore, the Mughal and the British empires employed tactical methods in subduing opposition and mitigating the effects of possible resistance. The Mughal Empire’s establishment from sectional control to ruling the Indian-subcontinent was dependent on its military structures and strength. The strategic use of its warriors and armies was critical to quashing resisting territories. Therefore, military apparatus were critical to conquering, pacifying and consolidation regions for the purpose of creating the empire (Rohan 7).
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The use of military extends to the British Empire which employed the use of sophisticated weaponry in contrast to the opposing Indians. Therefore, the extent of the military and the employment of strategic, military approaches were critical to dealing with cases of resistance or opposition towards the furtherance of the empire’s agenda. Significant cavalry and weaponry advantages were critical in mitigating the effects of resistance. The use of the military apparatus is critically employed by empires seeking to weld their regions together or to further their political agendas in the face of resistance or opposition.
However, military apparatus were not the only available solution. Wealth and strategic, political and administrative processes were employed while dealing with resistance. The segregation of social classes created an avenue to employ strategic, administrative maneuvers while mitigating resistance. These strategies employed fiscal approaches to administer and control the populace (Rohan 9). These methods ascertained a degree of control where administrative layers and levels were implemented in an effort to manage and control the population. The imperial administration employed negotiated alliances and provincial administration to manage the local populations on behalf of the imperial rulers. This system was critical when dealing with instances of social-economic and political resistance or opposition.
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These strategic, administrative approaches were hence used to deter cases of mutiny amongst the empire’s military elites. This was characterized by supporting the military to decide and elect their chiefs while incorporating local individuals into the imperial administrative structures. Therefore, sections of the local population were allied to the empire. These served as tools for the sustenance of social-political alliances; while eliminating potential resistance and endearing co-operation of the local communities. These methods were used by both the Mughal and British empires when faced with resistance or opposition.
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