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1. What are the three main divisions of Christianity?
- The Roman Catholic.
- Eastern Orthodox.
- The Protestant Churches.
2. What New Testament Book is the primary basis for Roman Catholic Doctrine?
- The Gospel
3. Why did Eastern Orthodoxy pull away from the Catholic Church?
The Eastern Orthodox pulled away from the Catholic Church due to the differences they had some of these differences include; the popes claim to the universal jurisdiction of the church, whether unleavened or leavened bread should be used in Eucharist, the infallibility of the pope of Rome on matters of the church doctrine. There were also differences over the doctrine of purgatory and also the immaculate conception of Virgin Mary.
4. What New Testament Book is the primary basis for Eastern Orthodox Doctrine?
- The Acts of Apostles.
5. How did Luther change the church's understanding of “Justification by Faith”?
Before Martin Luther, the church believed that for there to be justification both the individual and the church had to be involved. Martin Luther changed this by teaching that only Gods grace and faith can justify one from sins
6. Name two New Testament Books that Luther wanted to leave out of the New Testament? Why?
James and Jude. He believed that books are not in the same level as the other books of the New Testament and have complete expression of the evangelical truth and hence should be used by one with care
7. What New Testament Book is the primary basis for Protestant Doctrine?
The Acts of the Apostles.
8. Discuss the central idea in Calvin’s theology.
The central idea of Calvin theology is the idea of common grace. This is the special or the saving grace which is to only those who God has chosen to redeem.
9. What was Calvin’s doctrine of “Dual Predestination”?
The theory is that God before he created the world God had predestined some people for eternal salvation (the Elect) while the others would suffer everlasting damnation (the Reprobates).
10. Discuss the “TULIP” outline of Calvin's theology.
Total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace and the perseverance of the saints are all what TULIP is about in the Calvin theology.
11. How did Gabler change the way that Christian's study the Bible?
This was because of his address in 1787 University of Altdorf “On the Correct Distinction between Dogmatic and Biblical Theology and the Right Definition of Their Goals.” In the address, Gabler distinguished between biblical and dogmatic theology.
12. What is the difference between Dogmatic Theology and Biblical Theology?
Biblical theology is the historical investigation into the beliefs of the biblical authors as they stand in the text. It is purely descriptive and uninfluenced by the viewpoints of modern thinkers. On the other hand, dogmatic theology is a systematized construction, built on the foundation of biblical theology and contextualized - applied to the context or era in which it is to be proclaimed.
13. How did Jonathan Edwards change Calvin's doctrine of dual predestination?
Faulted the doctrine of dual predestination and claimed that God gives people the free will to determine their relationship with him.
14. Explain how the 20th Century changed Christian theology.
The 20th Century saw the coming of the Pentecostal movement which totally changed the Christian theology.
15. How did Karl Barth change Calvin's theology?
Karl Barth believed predestination ended with the death of Jesus and salvation was free for all who accept Jesus to their lives.
16. How does John B. Cobb, Jr. answer the question how God acts in history?
Cobb saw Jesus as the center of history, but not the whole of history. He believed that God will judge others by their actions.
17.What does Teilhard de Chardin have to say about Creation and Evolution?
He tried to reconcile Christian theology and biological evolution. Teilhard de Chardin noted the peculiar contributions of modern science to the vision of creation. Arguing that evolution moves toward complexity and consciousness, he noted that the order implied by creation is in the future and is achieved as a result of both the mechanisms of evolution and the action of humankind.
18. What does Bede Griffiths say about Christianity and Hinduism?
He believed that Christian should learn from the Hindu culture. He also wrote about the unity of religions.
19.What does Thomas Merton say about Christianity and Buddhism?
He believed that non-Christian faiths such as Buddhism had much to offer Christianity in terms of experience and perspective and little or nothing in terms of doctrine
20. What is the meaning of Christ for John B. Cobb, Jr.?
To John B. Cobb, Jr Jesus Christ is the hope of the world.
21. Extra Credit: What is Wolfhart Pannenberg’s understanding of revelation (not the book).
He believed that, understanding of History itself as God's self-revelation, he strongly asserted the Resurrection of Christ as a proleptic revelation of what history is unfolding