# Statistic Comparison essay

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## Statistic Comparison. Custom Statistic Comparison Essay Writing Service || Statistic Comparison Essay samples, help

1. Introduction

This experiment is about sensory discrimination in tasting beverage. Here the selected beverage is Tea. It tries to find out whether just by tasting, can anyone distinguish between the two cups of tea made in different order that is “Tea-First” Cup and “Milk-First” Cup procedure.

2. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to check the sensory discrimination of tasting tea in Stephen. This study will clarify whether a person can distinguish between tea-first cups and milk -first cups.  The null hypothesis of the test is that a person can always distinguish between these different cups of tea. If Stephen can identify the differences then the decision related to null hypothesis will be considered as positive. Otherwise the alternate hypothesis that people cannot always find the difference will be established.

3. Method

The method for this test is quantitative research methodology. As it will follow the structure of deciding over null and alternate hypothesis, quantitative methodology suits it best (Wrench, et al. 2008). The process considers chi-square analysis as the base for statistical derivations.

3.1 Participant

To analyze taste sensory discrimination, this experiment chose Stephen Mark as the subject. Stephen Mark work as a part time assistance in a tea shop and is also a self proclaimed expert on tea tasting.

3.2 Experimental Design

In the experiment Stephen need to discriminate between two types of teas. First one will be the tea in which some amount of milk had been added. On the other hand, will be tea in a cup with milk in it.  With specification the total amount, texture and temperature of the ingredients are kept exactly the same. The design of the test will be managed under random variation.

3.3 Data Collection

The data will be collected in tabulation form and the hypothesis will be scrutinized on the basis of statistical derivations.

3.4 Step-by-step procedure

The basic protocol will be determined through random variations in the cups of tea. Stephen needs to taste a total of 4 cups of tea. All these cups will be given on random basis. The initial 2 cups will be milk-first ones with little more and little less amount of milk, whereas the later 2 cups will be of tea-first with little more and little less amount of tea.  His task and declarations will be identified through the format of ‘which 2 were which’. The taste tests of Stephen will have three basic stages.  These stages are number of tea-first cups   ------> number of milk -first cups ------>  the tasting order

We will take an assistant among our friends to check the temperature and amount of every cup. There will be no chance for any variation. Every cup of tea will be served one after another. Once Stephen is ready for the cup, he will be offered with the same by making it instantaneously. There will be a small partition between the table where the tea will be made and the one where it will be served to avoid any hint to Stephen.

4. Data Analysis and Findings

In the process of data analysis, the test opts for chi-square analysis about the derivations counted by the declarations made by Stephen. There are the Observed [O] and Expected [E] Frequencies of Two “Tea-First” Cups and Observed [O] and Expected [E] Frequencies of Two “Milk-First” Cups. The assessments are declared on the basis of null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis.

TABLE 1 Two “Tea-First” Cups

 Differences Sweetness Texture Color Aroma Guessed Total Variations % % % % No. % Half Tea 3 30 3.5 35 7 70 6 60 Wrong 19.5 48.75 One-fourth Tea 7 70 6.5 65 3 30 4 40 Right 20.5 51.25 10 100 10 100 10 100 10 100 40 100

TABLE 2 Observed [O] and Expected [E] Frequencies of Two “Tea-First” Cups

 Sweetness Texture Color Aroma Guessed Total Variations [O] [E] [O] [E] [O] [E] [O] [E] No. Half Tea 30 48.75 35 48.75 70 48.75 60 48.75 Wrong 195 One-fourth Tea 70 51.25 65 51.25 30 51.25 40 51.25 Right 205 100 100 100 100 400

Here in tests related to ‘Two “Tea-First” Cups’; our null hypothesis of sensory discrimination in tasting beverage does differ significantly in both the cups. According to Chi-square calculation-

χ²= ∑(O-E)²/E

=∑O²/E- N

= 44.78

Degrees of Freedom= (4-1)(5-1)=12

The Tabulated value of χ² at 5% level of significance for 12 degrees of freedom is 21. Since our calculated value, 44.78; and is more than the corresponding tabulated value therefore we reject our null hypothesis and conclude that sensory discrimination in tasting beverage does not differ significantly in both the cups.

TABLE 3 Two “Milk-First” Cups

 Differences Sweetness Texture Color Aroma Guessed Total Variations % % % % No. % Half Milk 7 70 5 50 3 30 4 40 Right 19 47.5 One-fourth Milk 3 30 5 50 7 70 6 60 Wrong 21 52.5 10 100 10 100 10 100 10 100 40 100

TABLE 2 Observed [O] and Expected [E] Frequencies of Two “Milk-First” Cups

 Differences Sweetness Texture Color Aroma Guessed Total Variations [O] [E] [O] [E] [O] [E] [O] [E] No. Half Milk 70 47.5 50 47.5 30 47.5 40 47.5 Right 190 One-fourth Milk 30 52.5 50 52.5 70 52.5 60 52.5 Wrong 210 100 100 100 100 400

Here in tests related to ‘Two “Tea-First” Cups’; our null hypothesis of sensory discrimination in tasting beverage does differ significantly in both the cups. According to Chi-square calculation-

χ²= ∑(O-E)²/E

=∑O²/E- N

= 35.09

Degrees of Freedom= (3-1)(4-1)=6

The Tabulated value of χ² at 5% level of significance for 6 degrees of freedom is 12.60. Since our calculated value, 35.09; and is more than the corresponding tabulated value therefore we reject our null hypothesis and conclude that sensory discrimination in tasting beverage does not differ significantly in both the cups.

5. Discussion

The analysis forwarded on the basis of chi-square analysis under quantitative research methodology, showed that there is hardly any variation between the selected types of tea. Whether it is “Tea-First” Cups or “Milk-First” Cups, the declarations made by Stephen are not static. He is not all sure about the cups and the variations. Though he got right twice and wronged twice, yet nothing was based on his assessments related to Sweetness, Texture, Color and Aroma of the cups.

In Graph 1 (see Appendix), the assessments are very close. When it comes to texture of “Tea-First” Cups, there seems to hardly any difference. On the other hand, as shown in the Graph 2, (see Appendix), the there is no difference at all. As we see the differences in case of Sweetness, Color and Aroma of the cups; Stephen is equally not sure about the differences. The variations are very rare and there are lots of similarities between the declarations.

The only difference that has been marked in this test is that of amount. With more milk, the Sweetness and the Texture are better. On the other hand with more tea, the Color and Aroma gets better. The only difference therefore has been collected in respect to the amount of milk and the tea variations and not in the process of pouring.

6. Conclusion

Eventually we can conclude that there is no specific difference between “Tea-First” Cup or “Milk-First” Cup. Both the proceedings are though different, yet when it comes to taste they hardly make a difference.  It is important to note here that the quantity of tea and mi8lk definitely bring a specific variation, but the pouring processes never indulge any difference to the taste of the tea.  To conclude, the declarations made by Stephen thus need to get considered as vague and ambiguous. As there is slight difference in the cups of tea with different amount of milk/tea, it cannot be established that pouring of anyone first can make a difference.

7. Recommendations

Regarding this test the approach is very appropriate, yet I will opt for more cups among more friends in my next trial. That time the data will not be collected on the same day. I will prefer 4 to 5 days session for the test. This time this approach was not met as it was only Stephen who volunteered. However, next time there will be more variations.