Annotated Bibliography: Muhammad Ali Draft Refusal

Title: Muhammad Ali Refuses Army Induction; Stripped the Boxing Championship

Thesis: Muhammad Ali was stripped of his crown as a boxing champion due to his believe in conscience and religion, but remained committed to his aim of fighting racism and discrimination that was subjected to the Blacks.

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Ali, Muhammad. “The Black Scholar Interviews: Muhammad Ali." The Black Scholar 1.8 (1970): 32-39. Print. The information found in this article offers transitional material for my research paper. This Journal article describes Muhammad Ali’s interview and how, due to discriminations and prejudice, his various appeals and suits in the Supreme Court and the court of appeal were defeated. This newly revealed information offers me numerous different thoughts and will assist with the general content of my research paper.  The article illustrates how Ali, as a Negro fighter carrying out a civil act as a plaintiff, touched on social and political sensitive areas of racial imbalance. I will use this source to develop context arguments for my research paper.

Fight to Overturn Prison Sentence For Refusing Military Service. Dir. Bill Siegel. Perf. Christopher Plummer, Frank Langella, Danny Glover, Ed Begley Jr., Barry Levinson, Bob Balaban, and Kathleen Chalfant. Kartemquin Films, 2013. DVD. This documentary gives detailed scrutiny of the challenges that Muhammad Ali faced. It describes a formative time in the life of Muhammad Ali. The documentary illustrates how Ali’s life took a central stage in the world of boxing and how he was faced with trials that made his life to be more dramatic. The documentary further describes how Ali refuses to be inducted to the United States Army and how he gets into conflict with religion, wartime consent and Civil rights. The refusal of Ali is clearly demonstrated and how he gets convicted for evading draft. The documentary also shows how Ali is faced with trials, lives in exile in the U.S. The trials presented in the documentary shows how Ali speaks out in campuses against racism in the U.S and war abroad. This source will assist me to develop my thesis effectively.

Hauser, Thomas. Muhammad Ali: his life and times. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991. Print. This book describes how Muhammad Ali was the most respected, inspirational and recognizable man of his time. The author describes how Mohammad as a boxer brought grace and speed to the boxing sport, and how his wit and charm transformed forever what people expects from an athletic champion. The book further explains how Ali’s associates, opponents, enemies and friends polished his legendary accomplishment in sporting. What makes the book to be compelling to read is the historical refusal by Muhammad Ali to be drafted to the United States Army. Ali became the first United States national conscientious complainer. I will use this source to provide background information so as to set up my research thesis.

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Kram, Mark. Ghosts of Manila: the fateful blood feud between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2001. Print. This book describes how the fights and rivalry of Muhammad Ali as a boxer became controversial. The books shows how Ali’s boxing turned out to be madness and inflamed by politics and the Media. The book also describes how the events that followed Ali’s draft refusal left him with a battered soul. The book further describes how Ali’s punishment not only tried to destroy his reputation in the society, but also how it gave him a chance to become an activist. I will use this source to be in agreement with my thesis statement.

Lipsyte ,  Robert. "Clay Refuses Army Oath; Stripped of Boxing Crown." The New York Times 29 Apr. 1967: 46. Print. This newspaper article describes how Muhammad Ali refused to be inducted into the United States armed forces. Even though, there lacked an immediate action from the government, the article shows that Ali would be arrested for committing a felony. The article also shows how the organizations in charge of boxing instantly stripped Ali of his championship as the world’s heavyweight champion. Muhammad believed that his conscience could not allow him to be true to his belief in his religion to be drafted to the Army. The article describes how Muhammad Ali maintained civil litigation that was unsuccessful. Muhammad believed that he was entitled to be exempted from the draft since he was the appointed minister for Black Muslims. I will use this source to back up my thesis, as well as establish sub-points for my research paper.

Reemtsma, Jan Philipp. More than a champion: the style of Muhammad Ali. New York: A.A. Knopf: 1998. Print. This book talks of the career and life of Muhammad Ali as a boxing champion. The book goes further to illustrate how Muhammad Ali was both outside and inside the ring finally a prisoner of the unexceptional style of boxing, which he established for himself. The book talks of how Ali became the best known and most admired boxing champion of the twentieth century. The book illustrates how Muhammad Ali’s religion as a Muslim helped to portray himself as an idealistic, warm, devout, admirable and generous human being strong-minded to assist black fight the odds against them. I will apply this source as a guide to sources that are more relevant to my research paper.

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At this instant, I am contented that all the vital sources are at my disposal to start my research paper. I have done a close review of every source, and every one of them contains facts and thoughts of its own. The journal article contains highly detailed information. The New York Times newspaper article offers vital information that is timed and dated for my research. On the other hand, Hauss’ book contains tremendous information for my research. The documentary contains information that is newly discovered. By combining these sources with the rest of the books, I can be in a position to compose and deliver a highly authoritative and high quality research paper.

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