Anthropology Issues essay

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Neolithic age can also be referred to as new Stone Age. The Neolithic age was an age while progress of human technology went through many changes. The technology began to develop around 9500 BC in certain parts of the Middle East, and eventually in some other parts of the world. The Neolithic age was believed to be the last in the Stone Age. It was time after a period known as Holocene Epipaleothic, which marked the increase of farming. The Neolithic period ended when tools made of metal were largely used in the Copper Age (especially Chalcolithic period) or directly into the Iron Age.

The Neolithic is marked with progression in behavioral and cultural changes. These changes included the use of wild and domestic crops and the use of home or tamed animals. Recent findings show that the Neolithic culture have begun around 10,700 to 9,400 BC in a place called Tell Qaramel in the north of Syria, 25 kilometers to the north of Aleppo. Until these findings are adopted into the Archaeological community, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is said to be in the Levant (Jericho, present–day West Bank) about 9500 BC. It emerged from the Epipaleothic Natufian culture in the place where people used wild cereals, which then changed into real farming. This earned them the name “proto-Neolithic for the Natufians.

As the Natufians became reliant on wild cereals in their way of living, and a settled life among them, changes in the climate named the Younger Dryas made people evolve farming. By 9500-9000 BC, farming communities sprung up in the Levant and spread to somewhere Asia Minor, North Africa and in the northern Mesopotamia.

City-states were crowded with many poor laborers; they worked in appalling conditions. Starting from the lowest levels to the upper most institutions corruption was the order of the day. The urban workers are denied the rights of organization for self-protection.

The societal structure of local cultures became very sophisticated in Eastern North America throughout an era referred to as Woodlands (1500 BC to 700 AD). The people of woodlands lived in settlements next to rivers in tribes of 25 to a maximum of 125 people. The woodland Indians retained the politics of their fore-fathers in the course of the archaic period. Nevertheless, in an area of eastern North America Indians established a unique manner of life known as Adena. The Adena people emerged around 500 BC and were populated in the upper Ohio River valley. The Adena people increased their food by gathering and hunting.

Archaeologists applied various ways used to reconstruct the urban landscape. This included the systematic study of rings. They also used cross-dating, relative dating among many other techniques. The use of tree rings has been developed, and it now contributes to behavioral archaeology and to the repair of earlier environments.

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