Developmental Psychology essay
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Cognitive development refers to a child’s capability to learn as well as solve problems. There are notable initiatives observable in a baby during the formative years of their lives. For instance, a three-month old child is learning to know or familiarize with the environment using the various anatomical structures such as the hands (Ruffin, 2009). The formative days in any life form are very vital and during this period there exists a momentous growth together with learning. Proper comprehension of these evident transformations in the baby’s developmental level prepares the caregivers or parents to be able to provide an active and objective attention to children. Developmental transformation is a fundamental fact in human’s survival and every individual is developmentally distinct (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2007). There is an importance in appreciation of the fact that no babies are similar. There exist differences or uniqueness in physical, cognitive as well as attachment capabilities or processes. The Ainsworth’s theory provides critical insights into the probable effects of various attachment patterns in the life course of an individual. Observably, secure, avoidant, as well as resistant or disorganized attachment patterns all have significant influences into an individual’s life. Development means a transformation or growth of a child in the life course following the birth upto the adolescence period. It is imperative to note that these transformations transpire the following an orderly pattern: counting physical, cognitive together with other several developments (Thompson, 2000). This essay presents the notable development processes regarding attachment together with cognitive aspects within the foremost two years of a human life. Furthermore, it discusses the vitality of these developments in the future adult life of a human.
The Development of Attachment and Cognitive Development in the First 2 Years of Life
Generally, the young babies and specifically infants prove to highly regard the mature personalities who are near them. Consequently, they get attached to a minute group of persons early in their lives. It is observable that these are principally individuals who provide care to them. Such processes lead to the creation of the ground for attachment. Attachment herein refers to the powerful emotional association experienced between these infants or babies and the significant others (Sudbery, 2009). They thus develop to view these significant others as their role models or directors in daily life activity. They also show that feelings and trend of singular or complete reliance of these infants depend on these mature persons. It is also vital to indicate that as this bond gradually develops, its quality relies on these adults. When these associations are created, young babies learn that they are capable or able to rely on their mothers, fathers as well as caregivers. Additionally, there is also the tendency to rely on older siblings for the purpose or desire of feeling better (Steinberg et al., 2010). It is vital to highlight some of the attachment patterns presented in the Mary Ainsworth’s analysis and consequently indicate their likely effects on a person’s life course. Notably, a secure attachment pattern evident in certain personalities enables them to behave distinctively in the social arena. Secure traits make individuals more reluctant and complacent towards initiating relationships with others. Such children develop to become more self-dependent and secretive. On the other hand, avoidant attachment pattern makes people to avoid social contact; they do not easily initiate relationships and have a relatively characteristic deprived or low self esteem. These people would rather trust and confide in themselves rather than trusting others. The resistant type are highly self-independent, restrictive, and even violent at times. Arrogant characteristics are notable in them and they portray other deviant behaviors and do not comply with rules. Lastly, the disorganized character develops to portray lazy traits and seems reluctant to value friendship values as well as goals. They have very low self esteem and do not like associating with others.
Indicatively, these processes of attachments begin early within one’s life, and babies demonstrate various early attachment characteristics (Sroufe, 2005). Notable behaviors like cooing, kicking and gurgling, indicate that these babies care for, as well as respond timely to those who seem vital to them. Crying or clinging also demonstrates critical attachment behaviors in infants that are applicable in signaling the rest. Babies as young as a month old indicate some depictions of attachment (Prior & Glaser, 2006). These are presented in the likeness of anxiety. This is particularly observable when they are looked after by any strange individual. During these vital development processes, the infants might also indicate distress signs like irregular sleeping and distorted eating trends. As stated before, cognitive development entails the manners that the young ones reason: progress linguistically, solve their challenges and acquire their knowledge.
The infants begin by depicting diverse cognitive tasks in the two year period of initial development. These vital tasks include recognition of colors, finishing a puzzle, knowing the disparity between a single object and many (Steinberg et al., 2010). Other tasks include knowing the manner in which things are identical. The process of learning of the children within the two year old bracket begins via their socialization or contacts with people as well other things within the larger world. Senses within these children also form other vital capacities or modes through which these children can learn. Indeed, the critical role of human’s four senses within the cognitive world remains indispensable. These senses enable the infant’s interaction with the surrounding and consequently develop the sense and comprehension of this larger world. Sensorimotor stage in development transpires from the period of birth up to approximately 12 months (Mcleod, 2009). Within this level, the babies familiarize with the world. This is basically done via their senses, observing around continuously, staring at the caregivers and reacting to smiley faces.
Bright colors and sounds have critical development role in the process. There are other vital observable improvements such as recognition of names by these kids. Communication is another vital development component that enables kids to learn. There is also an observable development and consequently transformation in the cries of the kids, demonstrating particular demands. These cries constitute the basic stage for further development in which the child learns how to babble and later continues into coherent and meaningful speech. Evidently, there is also self-discovery, characterized by sucking body parts such as the arms (Thompson, 2000). This is also associated with the adoration of toys and the knowledge that they have power over the world. This also denotes the detachment from dependence on adults or other significant beings. During this age bracket, the object permanently develops. Furthermore, there is also the emotional progress when kids within this age category can express their feelings either explicitly or implicitly.
Why this is Relevant to Development in Later Life
There are several different effects of formative events or developments on the future progress of a child. It is notable that depending on the child’s exposure, relationship or experience during the formative years, the child is able to assume or adapt specific values, as well as behavior style or pattern. Thus, one is likely to develop a particular character or behavior later in adult life following the experience in younger age (McCartney & Phillips, 2011). Notably, there are hetero-behaviors or deviant characters in persons or individuals with strong attachment to the occurrences or processes that took place in the lives of these people during the cognitive as well as attachment developed stage (Mcleod, 2009).
These processes also tremendously affect the cognitive or learning capabilities of people later in life. Attachment variations also have significant influence on the kid’s personality as well as self-esteem during the later age. Problem resolution and analytical competencies of the individuals also have extensive attachments to these phases of development (Newman & Newman, 2011). Indeed, some scholars have noticed that these vital developmental stages have a great attachment to the proper biological amplification or development capacity in vital human organs such as brain.
Conclusively, cognitive development entails the aspects of youngsters’ capabilities regarding learning and problem solving. Furthermore, the developmental processes remain highly unique basing on the distinctiveness that exists among the youngsters. This explains the notion that some youngsters have superior learning and problem solving capabilities than others. Additionally, from all these observations, it is notable that these processes of human development are critical to the lives and wellbeing of infants. They determine a great deal of processes and competencies within individuals and, therefore, are regarded to be vital development levels of life.