"The Prince" Niccolo Machiavelli essay

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The Prince is the book that was written by an Italian philosopher known as Niccolo Machiavelli. The book analyses the politics, and it observes the way human behaviors today are the same as the years behind in the field of politics. Machiavelli provides a piece of advice to politicians regarding the way they are supposed to gain power and keep it. The methods that the author suggests for the leaders are relevant as the today’s nominated officials as they had been for the leaders of the earlier16th century. The ideas of politics are strictly stated in Machiavelli’s book. Thus, the way Machiavelli describes the cunning process as well as ruthless in the power pursuit. The Prince is claimed to be one of the modern philosophy issues especially the political philosophy, the effective truth of which is taken to be more significant than any other abstract ideal. In his book, Machiavelli started with a dedication letter, which he addressed to Lorenzo de Medici, a member of the Florence ruling family. The letter reveals some examples the ways the powerful men behaved throughout the history and the most proven ways of governing people. The views of Machiavelli trigger the main strands of notion in politics and international associations; thus, he employs the unique methods explaining his work in the political science.

Machiavelli employs a unique method in his major work of political science. He explains the way one can take control over other lands and the way of controlling them. His book provides the advice, which often disregards all moral and ethical rules. For instance, he says that ‘any man who would not make all good things would necessarily spoil so many being not good’. This advice is not the ordinary advice provided to mayors, presidents, or other people in the public official structures. Thus, Machiavelli knows that it is the best advice that could give officials more power, thus, giving fewer problems to the republic. Moreover, Machiavelli’s book is different from any other political books. This is because of the way he creates and controls principalities and explains through giving the examples, which the princes can emulate in order to maintain their power successfully. He draws the examples from his personal observations while he was on a diplomatic mission for the Florence ruling family.

Moreover, Machiavelli starts with his arguments providing some explanations of different types of states, republics, and principalities. Then, he explains different principalities, heredity mixed as well as with what he calls the ‘new principalities’. The new principalities are the methods created by leaders, but they are not hereditary. He further explains that the mixed principalities are same as those of the Pope or Sultan because they have been established during a long time just like the hereditary principles. Additionally, he explains the way to rule different principalities and the challenges to a ruler in each case. He goes into details to explain the ways of acquiring more land for the one’s principality. Therefore, he packs up his explanations with quotes ‘to desire to acquire is truly something very natural and ordinary, when men do it, they will be lauded or not blamed’.

Lastly, Machiavelli advocates for the use of evil to acquire a principality. He provides the examples of Agathocles of Syracuse as a way of proving that this works and will permit the one to rule the earth peacefully. He continues to explain about determining the strengths and weaknesses of other principalities, especially those of the Pope and the church. A native militia was one of the ideals, which he received while Florence was being under Piero Soderini’s rule. This provides the reason why Machiavelli was against the use of mercenaries. Thus, he says ‘in case one holds his position of mercenary arms basis, he will not become secure’. Additionally, he supports his statement with the examples from the Romans who did not use the mercenaries in their own country. He mostly uses the example of Caesar Borgia and his actions as one of the most efficient leaders but quit brutal, though he brought peace and order to the land that he had conquered.

Machiavelli understands politics as the realism in a political sense. The realism focuses on the varied claims held in the utility of idealism. The major component of the realist position in politics and international relations is emphasizing the power of augmentation of the power in international relations. It emphasizes the behaviors and outcomes and the states as the key factors in international relations. Therefore, Machiavelli in his book of The Prince provides different explanations of politics, which are packed with the examples. Firstly, he explains the way principalities should be ruled. Principalities are the states ruled by a single leader who may be a prince, a king, or a duke. In this case, Machiavelli tries to provide the contrast among the republic forms of the government, which have some representations of other classes in the society. Indeed, Machiavelli was the adviser of the Florentine republic. Thus, he wrote this work to carefully assess the political context of the prince rather than the political prescription.

Machiavelli understands that the political actions and policies can be charged with their outcomes. In such a theory, either intentions or ideals are essential except if only they allow people or nations to achieve their goals. In such a context, the ruthless and manipulative approaches are used in achieving political goals, including murder, deceit, and the use of force. Machiavelli emphasizes more the ideas of the political realism. This is because in the political realism he provides a set of arguments that often make the states or leaders to pursue their own interests. Thus, Machiavelli says that ‘politics is the art of the possible’. Therefore, people should not expect too much of the corruptive individuals or institutions. Moreover, he argues that the social and political systems are imperfect and the ability to carry out an action is the power being a more significant determinant of events than ethics or ideology.

Machiavelli argues about the political realism with describing politics and social relations as he understands them. His method, which he applied while explaining the political and social relations is essentially being a case study approach he always used to illustrate his ideas. He packed them with the examples from the ancient world and one more was from the contemporary Italian affairs. However, the different key aspects of the Italian politics influence on his writings of The Prince directly. For instance, such states as Florence, Milan and Genoa, which developed in the middle ages as the trading centers, had the fairly small controlled territories. The states were established under the ethnic groups that readily had set the stable boundaries among each other. The leaders in these states tried to extend their territories through dominating the smaller groups, this was something that had sparkled off the conflicts on the Italian Peninsula. This influenced on Machiavelli‘s writings of The Prince, thus, he tried to explain the way leaders could gain and maintain the power in the particular state.

Machiavelli’s argument is about the political realism, whereby he develops the theme of moral implications of leaders. Machiavelli provides the numerous and major statements, one which is self-preservation and the rule preservation by good leaders. He claims that one cannot accept to be righteous, since those surrounding them lack the public morality. This will make them use immoral ways in leading the others. Thus, he argues that the virtue is a vital tool for aiding better governance. Thus, there is the need to differentiate ethical values from unethical ones. Thes include an idea of understanding and acting on the occasions that happened in time and space. Therefore, the leader should act with an aim of achieving the interests of public; thus, he says, ‘the prince must have a concerning and caring heart rather than being cruelty’. Machiavelli recognizes cruelty as ethically unacceptable as it is evil. However, he still advocates for those leaders to use them as a tool for protecting the prince’s power. Moreover, he believes that such ways are good because they promote the interests of the leaders. Thus, Machiavelli emphasizes the morality as a principle necessity for creating the best situations ensuring the continuity of the prince’s authority.

The second argument for the authority to be revealed towards the end of the book in the title section is of, ‘freeing the Italians’. In this case, Machiavelli claimed that a good leader should enforce the order in the whole state where he or she is governing. The author of The Prince pleads for a wise and skilled leader who can initiate a better order and bring honor to himself as well as the prosperity to the entire state. Thus, the author emphasizes that leaders should work towards achieving the goodness for all citizens. Thus, he provides the justifications that ruthless leaders would not gain power. Moreover, this section foreshadows the patriotism that was to assist for unifying Italy. Conversely, this section was aimed at the petition to Florence ruler known as Medici Dukes.

Lastly, Machiavelli argues strongly on the political realism, which is a major approach in the international relations. This is one of the common approaches, which is also being the common approach employed by the foreign affairs’ actors since the Second World War. The contemporary realism situation is seen as anti-utopian explained in the thought school by Morgenthau. He reveals that the earth is unsatisfactory because of its rational perspective that inherently forces the human nature. Thus, in order to make the earth a better place, leaders should work harder towards creating the earth as a better living place. This is through eliminating conflicts and exercising fully the moral principles. This argument sounds justifiable, but its allegations are challenging. One of the political pragmatism principles of Morgenthau is a belief that politics is just like the society that is guided by a meticulous set of laws. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize the laws through where the community lives, thus, creating a better society. The law will challenge leaders in case they fail to lead the society. In this principle of Morgenthau, Machiavelli’s arguments are reinforced and extended through the application of Morgenthau’s principle. Morgenthau does not only describe the real situation of the political realism but also claims on the laws through following the basis of the suitable political work. Additionally, the people’s moral preferences do not direct law. However, if the laws are not followed, people may fail in ruling the state.

Machiavelli follows the arguments of the political realism and not the other presentation order. This is because the major indication that facilitates the political realism in finding the way to the scene of global politics defined by the concept of power. This power poses the political activities as a self-governing sphere such as ethics, religion or economics. In this context, the political work is directed through the aim of achieving power, and the ethical or ideological aims of statesmen are taken to be of the imperfect use in envisaging the foreign policy. This is because the politics should be directed towards developing and retaining power. Thus, in the book  The Prince, the author tries to bring out the issue of leadership and the way leaders seek power through the bad means.

In the end, the method of Machiavelli recommended in his book is used by varied political players. There is a problem with applying his harsh methods of ruling as described in the book The Prince. In case, this knowledge is kept by individuals, a small or closed group, and the strategies in the text may be effective. In case that the information may be broadly employed in the political field or imitated, some things may follow. One of them is that players may become harder to be manipulated and controlled since they understand the methods used in politics well. Therefore, the persuasion and deception would be harder to achieve. Another thing is that many people would try to play the political games. Thus, both predictions and the internal politics control may tend to break down in case of too many external contingencies impinging upon the political system.

Moreover, some details indicate that Machiavelli was not as empirical as he claimed. For instance, his model leaders, especially Caesar Borgia, failed in his ambitions despite the fact that he followed every Machiavelli’s idea from the very start to the end. Fate is what the author of The Prince reveals and that can bring down even the most perfect rulers. Even if one may follow the pragmatic principles of Machiavelli, one may not succeed in the end. However, one has to maximize some of his capacities. Similarly, Machiavelli emphasizes the significance of the good military forces, and he stresses the use of mercenaries. However, the Florence ruling had the powerful and trained military but they were smashed, and the professional military trained men of Spanish. Therefore, his pragmatic principle works to some extent but his method of gaining and maintaining power is applied in the contemporary society.

In the contemporary society, Machiavelli’s method is used today in the modern politics. However, some of those in the political games have used this method, and they have succeeded while others have not. Machiavelli stated that the good laws are dependent on good arms; thus, the good laws are derived from the use of force and power. In this context, Machiavelli’s ideas or laws need the power to be enforced before it is worth pursuing. However, the question is the way this power can be controlled and restrained by those ruling their government. Therefore, his methods remain unstable. However, most of his methods are applied in the modern society, especially the effectiveness of the state’s reliance on the good laws. Laws are used in the modern society in order to govern people in a particular society. These laws are being emphasized by Machiavelli that they have the laws as the principles of the organizations are useful as well as necessary in any government system. Moreover, these laws in sense are set to limit the certain behaviors; thus, they are the part of the mechanism, whereby the governmental goals might be achieved.

In conclusion, the views of Machiavelli trigger the main strands of notion in politics and international associations. Thus, he employs the unique methods in explaining his work in the political science. The author of The Prince provides the advice, which often disregards all moral and ethical rules. He explains different principalities, heredity mixed as well with what he calls ‘new principalities. Machiavelli supports the use of evil to obtain a principality. Additionally, he understands politics as the realism in the political sense. The realism focuses on the varied claims, which are held in the utility of idealism. Machiavelli’s argument is about the political realism, whereby he develops a theme of moral implications of the leaders. He follows this argument of the political realism because the main signpost that helps the political realism to find its way for the political powers. However, some of Machiavelli’s methods, especially the reliance of good laws in a state, are applied in the contemporary society.

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