1. During the American Revolution, the American hybrid forces participated in about forty military engagements around 30,000 square miles against the loyalist forces. These engagements were mostly against the General Cornwallis. The leaders of guerilla movement, Ethan Allen and FrancisMarion, significantly contributed to the success of the war. In 1780, Marion raised local guerillas in South Carolina, attacked large British loyalist forces, and then skillfully withdrew. As a result, he liberated more than hundred American prisoners. The night attack of Allen and militia (May 9, 1975) made the British forces to surrender the Fort Ticonderoga (upstateNew York) without any bloodshed. Nathanael Greene practiced a hybrid warfare in Ninety-Six, Hobkirk’s Hill, and Eutaw Springs battles. Although he lost all of them, the South part became American by 1781.
The advantage of a hybrid warfare is a combination of the conventional forces and strategies; also, local population always supports guerrilla. When army retreats, part of the conventional forces can stay at the invaded territory and continue the combat actions, changing the strategy to guerrilla, e.g. hit and run tactics, demolition of infrastructure, etc. The challenges for the guerilla warfare as a part of a hybrid warfare is the development of the warfare principles and strategies, as Nathanael Greene did for his campaigns.
2. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, USA actively traded with France and Britain. As these countries started the war, US kept neutral position and traded with both of them. By 1812, Britain imposed the trade restrictions and started the practice of forced recruitment of American seamen for service at the Royal Navy. Occasionally, France seized the American ships, as well. The British forces also supported the American Indians and prevented Americans from expansion up to the Northwest.
The War of 1812 resulted in the renewal of a national self-confidence and the military force to defend the national interests. During the war, the trade reduced, and the Americans were constrained to develop their industry. The industry development was a mean to provide national security during the war. Afterwards, it appeared a notable achievement of the war.
3. The strategy of the Confederacy was to defend their social order. The aims of the war were to protect the resources, supplies and slave labour force. This was the idea of winning by not losing. The Confederacy aimed at persuading the North that battle for the Union is not worth of the life and money sacrifices, and expected the North to quit the war after several battles.
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The military strategy of the Confederacy corresponded to the war objectives. To prevent penetration, Confederates dispersed their forces; they applied “sitting down and waiting” tactics. Since defense strategy proved to be ineffective, eventually they synthesized the “offensive-defensive” strategy, as the President Jefferson Davis stated. They defended the homeland and offended when the opportunity appeared. In fact, this was the strategy of the dispersed defense. The Confederates lead several offensive campaigns, e.g. Virginia-Maryland and Tennessee-Kentucky theaters. The South had little chances to win, as they did not have the provision system if the Confederacy forces move far north. Thus, the strategy was incomprehensive and unsystematic, and the South regime fall.
4. The USA entered the World War I in April 1917. The Germans continuously sank the American ships that carried civilians and supplied the weapons for Britain. In 1915, Germans sank the ship Lusitania that carried 1195 people.
The USA invested about two billion dollars into Britain and France. If they had lost the war, they would not be able to pay the debt back. In 1917, Russia quit the World War I because of the Revolution, and thus USA decided to support Britain and France to assure its debts’ return.
In March 1917, Germany sent to Mexico the telegram known as Zimmerman note. It stated that Mexico would receive support from Germany to invade New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. This was the final reason for declaring the war in April 1917.