Wheeler’s model used for designing curriculums is an improved version of a Tyler’s model used for the same purpose. According to Wheeler’s five-phase model, the elements of a curriculum are interdependent and interrelated. The Tyler’s model is linear; it begins with setting objectives and ends with evaluating the results. According to Tyler, the evaluation is a terminal tool that helps assess the outcomes of learning and compare them with initial expectations (Chaudhary & Kalia, 2015). The advantage of Wheeler’s model in comparison with Tyler’s one is in the fact that it offers a cyclical model that that is neither linear nor terminal. For instance, within the framework of a cyclical model, the results of evaluation are integrated back into the learning goals and objectives, affecting future learning stages (Chaudhary & Kalia, 2015). Therefore, within the framework of a Wheeler’s model, an educator makes the first step to determine academic goals and objectives. During this phase, teachers discuss and determine ultimate aims that are supposed to be yielded during the learning process. In the course of curriculum planning, goals are formulated from general to specific. In the end, the formulated objectives serve as evaluation tools. The second stage of a cycle involves selection of learning experiences that should be gained in the learning process. During the third stage, relevant educational content is selected (content is distinguished from learning experience that determines the content) (Chaudhary & Kalia, 2015). The next step (fourth stage) would be the process of organization and integration of learning experiences. Finally, the fifth phase is evaluation. During the process of evaluation, an educator takes into account both areas that students have mastered well and areas that need to be further worked on. After that, the identified learning needs and gaps in learning are taken into consideration when a teacher establishes future goals and objectives. Some strengths of the cyclical model include its flexibility as it is based on a situational analysis at the starting point of curriculum development, its sequential logical structure, and perception of a curriculum as a continuing activity.
The following plan demonstrates how a Wheeler’s model may be employed to make a five-phase plan for a new English language curriculum for a primary school grade.
Phase #1. Goals: (a) developing students’ reading and writing skills through teaching, continuous practice, and monitoring until students master phonemic awareness, fluent and accurate word recognition and decoding, and understand the basic features of written texts in English language; (b) enabling students to exercise control over the written and oral conventions and meanings they intend to convey in the process of oral and written communication.
Phase #2. Selection of learning experiences: (a) group readings and discussions that will help students stay focused, consider the ideas of others, listen actively, work out the solutions to intellectual problems, pose hypotheses, redefine initial ideas and expand on the ideas of others; (b) completing writing assignments to learn how to find appropriate words to describe action and use capital letters for names.
Limited time Offer
Phase #3. Selection of content: personal writing, foundations of reading and spelling, vocabulary and concept development, structure and conventions of modern English, and making oral presentation. Other kinds of content include reading excerpts of different genres such as drama, fiction, nonfiction, classical literature, and traditional narratives. Lastly, content is going to include regular practice of applying decoding skills and systematic phonic instructions to improve language skills.
Phase #4. The fourth phase involves organization and integration of learning experiences to achieve goals and objectives. In other words, responsible educators schedule curriculum activities in a manner that allows maintaining required frequency and consistency of learning experiences.
Phase #5. Students take tests to evaluate their academic achievement and determine how effective their learning was. Once the tests are completed, an educator notes the areas that need to be further worked on. After that, the identified learning needs are integrated into the goals and objectives of the next curriculum.
Related Education essays