China is one of the top nations with a higher number of immigrants to Canada who in return become permanent residents. In 2009, 25,000 people immigrated from the People's Republic of China making a total of 1.2 million of Chinese population in Canada. The Chinese communities have been in Canada for more than fifty years. There was an important arrival of rich Chinese from Hong Kong in the early and mid 1990s before the handover of Hong Kong to the (PRC) People's Republic of China. Canada was a favorite site partially as investment visas were considerably simple to obtain than visas to the United States. The main destinations for the Chinese were Richmond, Toronto and Vancouver. Hong Kong immigrants alone formed up to forty six percent of all the Chinese immigrants Canada in those years. However a considerable portion of Chinese immigrants decided to move back to Hong Kong in 1997 after the handover was complete and there was no more fear of Communist takeover. The Chinese immigration from Hong Kong has gone down harshly in the 21st
century and the main foundation of Chinese immigration is from the mainland China. Slighter numbers have emerged from Fiji, Taiwan French New Zealand and Polynesia.The Astronaut families
The major concern has been with the occurrence of what have been referred to as astronaut families in 1990s. The incident has mostly been connected with Chinese immigrants from Hong Kong and Taiwan. Astronaut dad is a term used to mean the physical nonexistence of the husbands or fathers in the immigrant families (Richard, 2005). They move back to their initial countries in order to chase economic targets or to advance their career benefits. In Vancouver and Toronto, the international agreement is mostly common in Taiwanese, South Korean and Hong Kong family. The reason behind the arrangement relies on lackluster business presentation, deskilling of abroad professional qualifications and extreme business competence within racial cooperatives among entrepreneur settlers. Most immigrants from South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan are from the middle-class to higher class that carries considerable financial capital and advanced educational credentials.According to Richard (2005), the settlers consistently experience hardships in securing an employment equivalent to their educational skills and career teaching. Such devaluation of foreign qualifications has been referred to as brain abuse by researchers. This plainly means violating the knowledge and technology that settlers have accumulated before moving to Canada. It also refers to brain wash where the acquaintance, technology and skills of extremely qualified settlers are weakened. Most of the settlers that have high human resources are referred to engage in lower paying jobs like servers in restaurants or tax drivers for them to take care of their families. Immigrants from Hong Kong are strained into the same de-skilling whirlpool credited to language obstacles, shortage of Canadian education and working experience.
Due to low earnings and incomplete rising mobility in the Canadian industry market, many Hong Kong male settlers have gone back to their original nations to advance their businesses or specialized careers left pending before migration (Richard, 2005). They are usually referred as "astronaut dads," who plainly "fly" across Canada and China on a frequent basis without a stable home. Better economic results in the original country give explanation for the international "astronaut" agreement of the gentleman heads of customary Chinese family. They are families in which gender responsibilities are still amazingly stiff despite elevated height of westernization and financial progression in the last two decades which are Kobayashi and Preston. Basing on anticipations, intercontinental "astronaut" family preparations cause predictable effects to the family being left behind particularly the wives and children. It is distinguished that astronaut fathers apply international strategies to fulfill financial needs that cannot be recognized in Canadian work market and business surrounding. They also fake intercontinental connections between Hong Kong and Canada so that they can prevent racism in the Canadian place of work (Peter, 1998). They tend to consume internationality for economic involvement to fill up the empty space of the Canadian official nationality that offers lawful position and rights but is devoid of personality and contribution.Mothers and children in Astronaut families
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In Canada, the wives and children left behind by astronaut fathers are faced emotional suffering and sensible dysfunction which at the end leaves them being sarcastically claimed and referred to as single or lone wives and settlement or satellite children. The term Lone wives is used to mean mothers who shift to Canada with their spouses and stay in Canada to take care of the house and the kids while their spouses become astronauts to hunt economic privileges back in Hong Kong. The single mother trend is mainly attributed to Confucianism and patriarchy in the culture of Chinese. The majority of the female settlers used to have consistent and fulfilling life back in Hong Kong. It is only that they agreed to move to Canada basing on their husbands' objective and in the hope that their kids would gain from the high class Canadian education system.Peter (1998) asserts that on arriving in Canada, they were unwillingly pushed into lack of employment, underrated jobs and dependent work that were underpaid. Such jobs included working in factories in places far from their homes or as cleaners in restaurants. Mostly, they applied as needy applicants with their spouses. This reveals the patriarchal nature of the migration coordination and authorization system. As a result of unwillingness to position individual benefits over family commitment majority of the mothers quit jobs and become permanent housewives to take care of their children and to ease up the route for their spouses astronaut preparations (Peter, 1998). This sharing out of household work highlights gender placing in migration and family preparations in cultural Chinese families. Lack of their husband's sensible and emotional support troubles these single mothers with a notion of boredom, isolation and hopelessness. At times, the physical distance results into extra marital relationships of their abroad spouses and finally causes breaking up of the families. Their encounters in transnational astronaut families are characterized by female oppression in Chinese families. The experiences are also considered to be difficult changes over race, nationality, gender, ethnicity and class.Contrary, satellite or settlement children are those kids that put up in Canada in transnational astronaut families. The consideration of their education in Canada is one of the reasons why Chinese migrate to Canada. Most Chinese parents move to Canada to favor children's attainment of North American education qualifications to be used in future profession in Hong Kong (Chung, 1999). Through learning in universities in Canada, children build up the much-coveted cultural resources which comprise social links and association with friends. This also involves trying to advance accessibility to higher jobs in the business sectors in Hong Kong after graduation. The approach permits the Hong Kong middle to upper class to recreate their class position through foreign studying. It also concludes in a rising class termed transnational capitalist class of abroad trained employers in Hong Kong.Chung (1999) stipulates that on the outside, Chinese migration to Canada profits kids greatly in the families. Despite this, the children experience challenges while adjusting to Canadian lifestyle and have a clashing feeling of belonging. Majority of satellite children have to transfer from the Hong Kong education system to the Canadian education and to handle life changes in new surroundings. They might not be prepared to manage daily sensible hassles and emotional commotion that suddenly come to the outside. Filled with high anticipations from parents, intergenerational clashes, mental alteration and cultural surprise, they may experience a tough time accruing to Canada. The Children are excused from using internationality to satisfy the need for personality to finish the four extents of nationality. Among young immigrants it is believed that the feeling of belonging to a latest place calls for positive feelings and ease of adjustment. As they spend more time in Canada, comradeship develops and acculturation to the Canadian school system takes place. Both less racial favoritism encounter and fulfilling academic results, a powerful sense of belonging to Canadian community can be progressively develop. Once they are fully incorporated into the community, especially through the education system, they feel an improved feeling of belonging. Young Hong Kong immigrants are entitled to a whole package of Canadian nationality. These include rights, participation, legal status and identity (Chung, 1999). However, all Asian background people face racism which varies between Canadian-born Chinese and immigrant youth.Without prior notice, the intercontinental encounters of grown up Hong Kong settlers and the aspects affecting their perceptions of nationality and feeling of belonging to Canada have not been adequately investigated. Located in specific generation in the family, most of elderly Hong Kong settlers play a role of taking care of their grand children. In some cases they are isolated from their children that have become astronauts and working for Hong Kong. Majority of them rely on their kids to take care of daily requirements, but the fact that their children are not nearby, they might encounter problems in their day to day lives. However, Chinese immigration to Canada has created enormous contribution especially in terms of cultural and economic involvement. They have good business intelligence, great work ethic, willingness to take risks, willingness to save up, to invest and their willingness to hire people and start small businesses.