Hofstede Five Dimensions of National Culture
This is a model developed by Gert Hofstede of five dimensions of national culture which assist in understanding fundamental value variations. The model differentiates cultures according to power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation (de Mooij, 2004, p. 33). We shall critically analyze each dimension and evaluate its relevance in the way different organizations are structured today.This is the level to which those less powerful in the society recognise that power is distributed unfairly. This dimension influences the way people view authority from the point of view of those powerful and less powerful people in the society. It is relevant in today's organizations because they are structured in such a way that the leaders are powerful and are able to effectively give instructions to the less powerful juniors. Where there is large power distance in an organization, acceptance and giving authority occurs naturally thus organisations are run effectively (de Mooij, 2004, p. 33).Individualism/ Collectivism
The culture of individualism is where people look after themselves and immediate family whereas in collectivism people social groups who look after them for loyalty. Individualism cultures have people wanting to differentiate themselves while collectivism cultures need harmony which makes people to understand each other (Barfield, Heiduk & Welfens, 2003, p. 113). The fact of individualism is relevant in organizations because people are able to make decisions on their own whereas collectivism ensures that teams are able to work in harmony in achieving common success goal for organization.Masculinity versus Femininity
The outstanding value in masculinity culture is achievement and success whereas the dominant value in femininity culture is caring for others and quality for life. In masculinity culture, status of big and fast success is important whereas those who score low are more inclined to service culture. The importance to have both cultures in an organization enables a strike of consensus (de Mooij, 2004, p. 34 & 35). The two will complement each other in working and offering excellent services leading to an outstanding performance for an organization.Uncertainty Avoidance
This is the way people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and they try to avoid these situations. These have led to organizations developing rules and formalities. However, it is important for organizations to have weak uncertainty avoidance because it will encourage innovation and entrepreneurial (Barfield et al., 2003, P. 113).Long term orientation
This is the distinction between the short and long term orientation in the society. The Long term thinks about the future and it will involve perseverance, acceptance of change and pursuit of peace of mind. However, the short term is more focused on spending as compared to savings for tomorrow (Mooij, 2004, p. 35 & 36). Long term orientation in organizations helps them in continued future success whereas short term is not encouraged.Matrix and Hybrid Stuctures
A matrix structure is an organization structure that brings together vertical and horizontal channels of authority. There is a superimposition of product department on a functional department. The authority in a matrix structure flows both vertically downwards as well as across (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor, 2009, p. 202).A hybrid structure combines the characteristics of several approaches which are modified to suit specific strategic needs. These combined characteristics include functional, divisional, geographical, horizontal or even network structures. The hybrid structure usually takes advantages of various structures while avoiding some of the weaknesses (Daft, 2009, p. 122).A matrix structure works excellently where both technical expertise and product innovation and change are crucial in achieving organizational goals. This is where combination of functional, divisional, geographic and horizontal linkage mechanisms (hybrid structure) will not work (Daft, 2009, p. 110). However, hybrid structure works well with existence of all other structures. This is basically because it is a combination of several structures.The matrix structure is usually suitable for a medium sized organization environment which has scarce resources across the product lines. Therefore it can share its available human resource across its product lines. However, hybrid structures are suitable in environments of very large organizations that have sufficient resources to run both functional and divisional departments simultaneously (Dyck & Neubert, 2008, p. 307). Thus the hybrid system involves a lot of staff so as to be able to run several departments as compared with the matrix which has combined structures to utilize the same staff.Moreover, there is high interdependence with frequent external changes between the departments that require matrix organizational structure. However, in the hybrid structures, the several departments are independent in their operations and as a result they are not expect to rely on other departments and neither are they affected by frequent external changes. Thus the matrix structures coordinate a lot of information between departments and processes information in both horizontal and vertical directions (Daft, 2009, p. 110).In general, the hybrid system has more advantages because it combines all the other individual structure advantages while eliminating their disadvantages in the process (Leontiades, 1987, p. 198). A company that utilizes hybrid system in able to centralize some of its functions such as human resources, legal, technology and finance so as to achieve economies of scale in a single independent functional department (Daft, 2009, p. 123). Thus we can conclude that the best organizational structure depends on the organization's demands.Motivational Theories
The managers are responsible in motivating the subordinates in any organisation so as to be able to meet the organizational targets and have job satisfaction in the process. We examine four motivational theories giving an appropriate use for each theory.Acquired Needs Theory
This theory suggests that subordinates are motivated by their need for achievement, power and affiliation. According to this theory, all subordinates have the desire to realizing their goals, recognition and belonging to certain category of achievers. There is a claim that men are more oriented to achievement whereas women are relationship oriented. As a manager, I would categorize employees according to their desire that is achievement, power and affiliation. For those who need achievement, I would assign them non-routine challenging tasks with clear attainable goals while ensuring that fast and frequent feedback is given on their performance. I will allow the other group interested in power to control their jobs as possible by including them in decision making processes. For the last team who need affiliation, I ensure that they work as part of a team since they derive their satisfaction in the people they work with rather than the job itself (Lussier & Achua, 2009, p. 85).This theory emphasizes on the subordinates being treated fairly. All the employees need to feel that they are experiencing equal fair treatment from their managers for them to be able to work effectively. As a manager, I should ensure that there are no favourites among the subordinates but rather treatment of employees in equal but unique ways. Moreover, whenever I reward the subordinates, the rewards given should be equitable in such a manner that those employees at the same production level receive equal rewards and those in lower levels should receive less. Furthermore, high level performance should be rewarded with clear incentive standards which can be objectively understood by all other employees. For instance, a pay incentive should have clear requirements to achieve such incentive and should be known by all the staff (Lussier & Achua, 2009, p. 87 & 88).
Goal Setting Theory
Want an expert to write a paper for you?
This is motivation achieved through setting of objectives. The major determinant of individual choice of goals is past performance and ability. For instance, budget goal specificity improves budget motivation, cost-efficiency as well as budget performance (Chapman, Hopwood & Shields, 207, p. 118). As a manager, we would develop the goals together with the subordinates while ensuring that they are specific, measurable and achievable within set datelines. I should be able to work through each goal achieved as time elapses while reminding them of those not yet achieved. The goal setting is an objective that has been very effective in several management motivations and used by several managers.Expectancy Theory
This theory proposes that subordinates are motivated when they have confidence in completing the job, being rewarded and that the reward is worth the task done. The theory is based on the internal and external environments that affect behaviour. When using this theory, a manager should ensure that there are clear objectives and procedure necessary to perform a given task which is possible. In addition, the rewards should be able to commensurate the task and be clear so that an employee would know exactly what to expect after accomplishing the given work (Lussier & Achua, 2009, p. 87 & 88).Managers and Leaders
Managers are those people who do the things right whereas leaders are those people who do the right things according to Bennis and Namus (1985). This is a statement that clearly articulates the difference between leaders and managers.In critical analysis of the statement, we find that managers have the people who ensure that a controlled process in carried out. This means that the expected outcome is already known and his duty is to ensure that it is achieved in the correct manner. The manager has the right procedures and methods of accomplishing a task and his purpose will be to ensure that those procedures and methods are followed to the latter and results are achieved as expected.On the other hand the leader is more involved in the actual process of accomplishing a task. Therefore as a result he has to ensure that all the procedures carried out are "right" that is correct so as to achieve desired objective. The leader will strive to do the correct thing even where there is no already known outcome. Thus unlike the manager, the leader will always be in the process of doing the correct procedures to achieve results because it deals more with motivating other members rather than using explicit methods.According to Bertocci (2009, p. 9), leaders deal with vision and the people but managers deal with systems, budgets, processes and tools of business. Leaders can be measured from the point of view of being bad or good. However, managers are measured as to whether they are effective or not. Moreover, leaders can bring victory or fail by taking the lead role for the entire team (Fox, 2010, p. 11). They carry out what they expect their subordinates to do.Furthermore, managers are more formal and scientific as compared to leaders. Moreover, the managers rely on several tools and techniques based on reasoning and testing while leaders have fewer explicit tools. In addition, a leader elicits teamwork; cooperation and inspiration to get others perform whereas a manger is more conservative and concentrates on achievement of defined goals. To add to their differences, a leader is creative and uses imagination whereas a manager used standards and well establishes solutions to problems (DuBrin, 2000, p. 7).The blend of both a manager and a leader is a sure recipe of excellent management of any organization. Therefore managers do need to be good leaders. The reason lies on the above qualities of a leader that are essential for an effective management of people. Since many organizations rely on people effectiveness to perform and develop an organization. Thus it is of absolute importance that managers have a vision and be able to be close and give direction to subordinates by adopting all the leadership qualities while utilizing managerial skills.Diversity at Today's Organizations
The organizations are currently having diverse human resource workforce. This diversity includes the diverse cultural backgrounds, races, educational levels, gender, age, religions and lifestyles. As a manager it is expected that you ensure that these people adjust to stay together in harmony and be able to coordinate events which maximizes the talents of each employee (Esty, Griffin & Hirsch, 1995, p. xi).All these diversities exist in any work environment and if fully coordinated it can bring a competitive advantage to an organization. However, failure to manage the diversity is a sure recipe for failure in an organization. Thus it becomes essential for all managers and supervisors to be able to deal with these diversities effectively (Esty et al., 1995, p. xi).Strategies for Effective Management of Diversity
As a manager I would strive for the global mind-set. According to Gardenswartz and Rowe (1998, p. 20) a leader should strive for the broader picture, accept life as a balance of contradictory forces and appreciate, trust the processes not the structures, value multicultural teamwork and diversity, see change as opportunities and expand knowledge. Thus as a manager, I first appreciate the diversity and cultivate the good appreciation of each diversity.To avoid language diversities, I would set a language that meets the organizations diversity. This will avoid a situation of a particular group lacking in understanding the operations or have an advantage over colleagues (Konrad, Prasad & Pringle, 2006, p. 4).Moreover, I would formulate a strategy that recognizes that working through diversity is imperative to success with special emphasis on gender diversity. This is by recognize that success can only be achieved in a balanced way through diversity and formulating organizational policies that recognizes such diversities (Jackson, 1992, p. 9).Another important aspect of managing diversity is to treat all the diverse groups with equality and respect for all. The organization should invest in giving priority minority groups which are vulnerable to being sidelined and recognition of the efforts of all diverse groups (Shakhray, 2009, p. 5).Moreover, I could utilize inclusive work model in my organization. This is a model that values and utilizes intergroup variations within a workforce, cooperates and contributes to surrounding community and alleviates needs of the disadvantaged groups in wider environment and collaborations with diverse groups and organizations across national and cultural borders (Mor-Barak, 2005, p. 8).