Functionalism seeks to describe not the manner in which consciousness occurs but why it does. It is greatly influenced by the efforts of William James and the weighty impact of Darwin’s evolutionary theory. Functionalism searches to comprehend the reason why individuals feel and think the way they do. It has its own insightful impact on educational thoughts (particularly John Dewey's proposal that children should be instructed at the level for which they are developmentally equipped). Structuralism is most significant in experimental psychology, whereas functionalism carries more weight in applied psychology, and particularly behaviorism.
Structuralism concentrates on discovering various mental procedures such as cognition, association and memory into their most fundamental elements. Evolutionary psychology is not a separate stem of psychology but somewhat a hypothetical lens that is at present contributing to all areas of psychology. Evolutionary psychology concentrates on comprehending cognition and human behavior in the framework of evolutionary history. This interest was initiated by the work of Charles Darwin. Evolutionary psychology utilizes the doctrines and premises of evolutionary biology as tools to expose the configurations and operations in the human mind (Campbell, 2001).
At the centre of evolutionary psychology is the issue of function. It makes no sense to query a living creature's structure without any deliberation of how it operates. The consideration of the way an organism functions is appreciable within the framework of what it was created to do. The functionalism of Dewey and James stressed the importance of describing an organism in terms of how it functions. Darwinian functionalism distinguishes the inseparability of design and function. Comprehending design makes it feasible to ask consequential questions concerning function and directs the exploration of structure (Cambell, 2004b).
Structuralism examines fields of deliberations and principles among other things as systems and investigates how they are interconnected. Functionalism explores societal organizations (education, government) and studies how they shape and meet people's requirements. Structuralism also entails introspection. Introspection can comprise self-observation that requires observers to recount the constituents of an article or incident rather than refer to it by a recognizable name. Functionalism can stress on psychology’s relevance to daily problems. It can examine the areas of personality differences and animal activities. Functionalism may also make use of introspection known as introspection by analogy. Introspection by analogy presupposes that the same mental procedures that transpire in the human mind must also take place in the minds of non-humans (Campbell, 2002).
In psychology, though conscious self-knowledge is a constructive ability in any psychological undertaking, introspection by its exact character is subjective rather than impartial. Structuralism hence lacks neutrality and consistency in its processes and results. This lack of agreement with the results of structuralism culminated in the formation of functionalism. Functionalism ponders the “purposes” rather than “constitution” of human perception, for instance, what the mind does. It concentrates on the way human beings become accustomed to their surroundings and what part behavior plays in permitting individuals to better adjust to their environments.
Darwin offered two key speculations that direct much of the contemporary psychological investigations— sexual selection and natural selection (Campbell, 2004a). These presumptions have considerable heuristic significance, steering psychologists to courses of adaptive problems connected with survival (threats from other organisms such as spiders, as well as other humans) and reproduction (mate choice, sexual competition, adjustments to ovulation). In the recent past, evolutionary psychology has steadily contributed in many subdisciplines. In discernment and sensation, it has culminated in the finding of facts such as the auditory looming preconception and the visual descent false impression (Buss, 2003a). Evolutionary clinical psychology offers a non-arbitrary explanation of mental disorder - when an evolved system fails to operate as it was created to function. It also broaches subjects such as the general afflictions e.g. melancholy, angst, sexual disorders and eating disorders.
Darwin’s theories of sexual and natural selection recognized the principal forces that form both physiological constructions and psychological systems alike (Astin, Redston & Campbell, 2003). Combined with the modern hypothetical advances supplied by the inclusive fitness assumption and generic selection, Darwin’s doctrines have proved to be valuable tools for charting the constitution of the contemporary human mind and connecting it with our lengthy evolutionary history. Studies applying Darwinian values have also exposed that kinship is a confidential social association overseen by specialized psychological methods that surmise relatedness supported by ancestrally available signals. These cues reliably differentiated between kin and non-kin as well as between dissimilar varieties of kin. These and countless other discoveries facilitated by the employment of evolutionary tools would not have been realized without Darwin’s grand theory (Buss, 2003b).