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 Question 1

1 point  



At what age intentional agent cognition in humans begins?








2 months 



2 years



9 months



9 weeks







  Question 2

1 point  



Front-horizontal foreshortening theory and carpentered world theory share these common characteristics:








The way we see the world is developed over time and experience



What we see is a combination of light reflection and learning



We live in a 3 dimensional world



All of the above







  Question 3

1 point  



W.H.R. Rivers (1905) concluded this through their optical illusion research :








Culture effects the way we perceive the world



The effect of the illusion differs between the cultures



There were no cultural differences in the results



Both A and B







  Question 4

1 point  



Stewart (1973) first tested the effects of the Mueller–Lyer illusion on both black and white children living in one American town and later tested children in Zambia and found:








No differences between the two racial groups



The effects of the illusion depends on the degree of carpentered environment



The effect declines with age



All of the above







  Question 5

1 point  



Masuda and Nisbett (2001) conducted a cross cultural study with Japanese and Americans and found:








There were no differences in recalling the focal object in the picture



Japanese remembered background elements better



Japanese were more influenced by background changes in the picture



The background did not affect Americans



All of the above







  Question 6

1 point  



Miyamoto, Nisbett, and Masuda tested whether Japanese and American differences in perception are due to environmental differences and found that:








The environment is linked to the cultural differences in perception and attention



The environment is not related to cultural differences



Americans and Japanese reported more contextual changes after viewing the pictures from the Japanese environment



Both A and C







  Question 7

1 point  



According to findings of Bruner, Oliver, and Greenfield (1966) as Western children grow older








They group things by shape, then function



They group things by size, then shape



They group things by color



They group things by function and color







  Question 8

1 point  



Chiu (1972) found that Chinese children








Tended to group objects according to relationship



Tended to group objects according to shared features



Tended to group objects according to the size



Tended to group objects according to the shape







  Question 9

1 point  



______ around the world are/is rather stable and are/is related to interesting and important psychological characteristics. Men are generally viewed as active, strong, critical, and mature, with psychological needs such as dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance. Fill in the blank.








Gender stereotypes



Gender differences






Gender identity







  Question 10

1 point  



According to a (n) ___________, males look for younger, chaste mates to bear offspring, while females look for mates that can provide offspring in the long term.








Social learning theory



Terror management theory



Evolutionary model



Base-relational theory







  Question 11

1 point  



Zubeidat and Vera-Villarroel (2006) and other researchers found that gender differences in ______ appear to be universal.
























  Question 12

1 point  



What is the source of gender-role socialization?








Expectation from parents



Modeling of gender roles by peers



Images of males and females in the media



All of the above







  Question 13

1 point  



According to Berry et al, and her colleagues, aggressiveness is viewed as “gender marking” behavior. They suggested that male aggression may be a __________ mechanism to offset the conflict produced by a young male’s identification with a female care provider and his initiation into adulthood as a male. Fill in the blank.
























  Question 14

1 point  



Many of the cultural changes that are brought by _________ raise the tension between tradition and progress, conservatism and liberalism.
























  Question 15

1 point  



Sexual identity means the degree of awareness and recognition by an individual of his or her ____ and ______. Fill in the blanks respectively.








Sex and sex roles



Gender and gender roles



Sex and gender



Self-identity, gender identity







  Question 16

1 point  



In the United States, our views of health have been heavily influenced by what many call the _________ of health and disease. Fill in the blanks respectively.








Worldwide mental health model



Biomedical model



Aggression model



Phenomenological model







  Question 17

1 point  



The concept of ______ has been used in recent years in contemporary psychology to denote not only a lack of disease, but the presence of positive health states.
























  Question 18

1 point  



Which one of the following statements is correct?








Concept of health does not differ between cultures, nor within a pluralistic culture such as the United States or Canada



The behaviors, such as displeasing the holy people of the past or the present; disturbing animal and plant life, and breaking social rules and taboos, is not the result of the ill health



Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) incorporates medical and health care systems and practices that are not considered conventional medicine to treat illness and promote health



None of the above







  Question 19

1 point  



Which one of the following statements is incorrect in terms of culture and conceptions of the body?








MacLachlan (1997) points out that common theories of disease in many Latin American cultures involve a balance between hot and cold which  is similar to the concept of yin and yang in Chinese



Social and cultural factors play a major role in the perception of one’s own and other’s body shapes, and these perceptions influence the relationship between culture and health



The longer some immigrants lived in traditionally Western cultures, the more their perception of ideal body shape changed to one that is thinner; Furnham and Alibhai (1983) found that the perception of body shape of the Kenyan British was different from those of the British



None of the above







  Question 20

1 point  



Which one of the findings by Matsumoto and Fletcher (1996) explain correctly the relationship between cultural dimensions and incidence of diseases?








High power distance is positively related to the rates of infections and parasitic diseases



High individualism is negatively related to the rates of malignant neoplasm, circulatory disease, and heart disease



High uncertainty avoidance predicts high rates of cerebrovascular disease



High Masculinity predicts low rates of infections, parasitic diseases and cerebrovascular disease







  Question 21

1 point  



According to the WHO report, countries with religions that strongly condemned the act of suicide had lower reported rates of suicide than countries without religions that strongly condemned suicide. However, researchers suggested that the reports may have been biased because _____________.








The sample size is small



The results was reported by the WHO



The countries with religious sanctions against suicide may have been less willing to report and record suicides



None of the above







  Question 22

1 point  



What should we have to be aware of in order to develop effective methods of both assessment and treatment?








Culture-specific systems of healing



Universality of healing



Lists of hospitals across cultures



Social economical status







  Question 23

1 point  



Triandis and his colleagues (1988) suggested that culture, specifically ______, plays an important role in mediating stress, which affects health. Fill in the blank.

















Social support







  Question 24

1 point  



The seven basic emotions that are expressed universally in all humans are:








Shame, disgust, anger, contempt, fear, happiness, sadness



Anger, contempt, fear, happiness, pride, sadness, surprise



Disgust, fear, happiness, guilt, sadness, surprise, contempt



Anger, disgust, contempt, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise







  Question 25

1 point  



Much of the momentum for contemporary cross-cultural research on facial expressions of emotions has come from the writings of ______________. Fill in the blank








Sylvan Tomkins



Charles Darwin



Paul Ekman



None of the above







  Question 26

1 point  



Being kept from something, your desire can be seen as a universal underlying psychological theme for  _________________. What is this?
























  Question 27

1 point  



Death of family members, physical separation from loved ones, and world news are more frequent triggers of sadness for Americans than Japanese.  This is an example of how cultural differences exist in the relative frequencies of the various ____________ events that bring about an emotion. Fill in the blank.
























  Question 28

1 point  



_________ govern the interpretation and perception of emotion.  These are learned culturally based rules that shape how people of each culture view and interpret the emotional expressions of others. What are these rules?








Encoding rules



Display rules



Decoding rules



Masking rules







  Question 29

1 point  



Because Japanese identify emotions in hara-the gut, and that the Americans identify emotions in the heart suggests that _____________________________.








Emotions are understood differently and have different meanings for each culture



Emotions are understood similarly and have the exact same meanings for each culture



Emotions are exclusively felt on a physical level



None of the above







  Question 30

1 point  



The James Lange (1927) theory of emotion suggests








First fear occurs, then the symptoms of fear (i.e., visceral changes) result



First symptoms (i.e., visceral changes) occur, then fear results



First a scary bear appears, then running (i.e., location changes) results



None of the above







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