The emergence of the People's Republic of China, and its increasing competition with the United States is destined to be one of the most important stories of the twentieth century. Today a situation between the US and China is considered as a cut-throat competition, and complicated cooperation. To some extent, they mutually bound each other, and these states are interrelated. Such relations are new phenomenon in the international arena. Simultaneously the parties are both, competitors and partners. They conduct cooperation under the conditions of competition and compete under cooperation.
Relations between China and the U.S. have experienced profound changes since the financial crisis of global importance in 2007. However, after events of the Cold War between East and West, and in process of development of globalization, these parties must be considered as associates. These countries take a significant part in the solving of problems, such as financial crisis, climate change, and other questions. It is obvious that the relationship between China and the United States of America has an actual character. Therefore, the world attention is focused on the US and China.
On the other hand, there are a lot of thoughts that China becomes a real threat to the United States. And nowadays this point has reached the peak. Sure, China is a state, which is always in process of development. It differs from other countries by the huge potential in the development of market capacity and space that is rather important and favorable factor in relation to other countries. A fast and stable growth of China's economy provides global economy vitality, various sources of wealth, which stimulate the modification of the division of labor pricing, and assists in raising the level of economic structure. The development of China and its impact on the global economy holds back inflation, which is determined by increasing of expenses. The Chinese economy, due to its rapid progress, has played an important role in the development of world trade. However, all mentioned aspects do not show the fact that China carries out a risk to the States of America. Analyzing economic development, the level of military power of these continents, we are able to prove the statement that the US is a powerful state, and such country as China is not a threat to the United States.
CHAPTER 1. The analysis of the US and China`s economy
An important indicator that characterizes economy of the state is gross domestic product. It is used to describe the results of production, economic development, economic growth, the analysis of labor productivity in the economy, and so on. GDP is estimated in market prices of final consumption, that is, in the prices paid by the buyer, including all trade and transport mark-ups and taxes to products. Very often the gross domestic product is defined as “the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period of time”. Due to this indicator, states are considered as either developed or developing countries. Generally, GDP per capita demonstrates the country’s standard of living. According to a data of the World Bank, GDP per capita of the United States was equal to 47,199 in 2010. In comparison with the US, the same indicator of China was 4,428 dollars. It looks like gross domestic product of the United States is ten times higher than China`s one.
More than 60% of the structure of the U.S. GDP is related to the service sector. Such situation is considered just in well-developed countries. The service sector of China is equal to 33%. In actual fact, among the developed countries the United States has no competitors, when we talk about industrial development. The service sector in GDP of the US is passed by Netherlands (more than 75%), Israel (approximately 81%), and Hong Kong (83%). This situation can be explained by certain competitive advantages in the system specializing in MRI services. However, these countries are not able to compete with the United States on the world service market because of their small territories, if compared to the States of America.
Approximately 33% of the world industrial production belongs to the United States. The industry of the USA consumes about 1/3 raw materials produced in the world. Its industry includes three elements of common production: manufacturing, mining industry, and electricity.
Taking to account natural resources of the United States, it is necessary to notice that in terms of value the largest share of the volume of production of mining industry is based on energy resources: oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium. About 72 % of extraction of metals involves iron ore and copper. Manufacturing industry generates more than 80% of general industrial outputs. Approximately 14% of the industrial output is produced by electric-power industry.
Nowadays the United States often practice new and knowledge-intensive technologies in different spheres of production. Americans hardly work on microelectronics, laser technology, and the production of fundamentally new materials with predetermined properties, genetic engineering, biotechnology, and different robots. The development of this sector is very important, as it facilitates the process of production and gives the possibility to provide people with the product of high quality. Moreover, this point gives an explanation that real sector of GDP of the United States reaches about 13%.
The real sector of GDP of the China corresponds to more than 50%. The country takes the first place in the world in a number of industrial enterprises as well as employees. Every year China manufactures products of the huge quantity that later are prepared to be exported. However, the quality of these products is not as high as the US one. It can be explained as Chinese do not practice such new technologies in production as the United States.
To compare economy of the United States of America and that of China it is necessary to consider agriculture. The U.S. farmers have reached the highest labor productivity in the world. One farmer provides the needs for agricultural products of approximately 60 persons, while in Western Europe a farmer can provide needs for about 20 persons. It is facilitated by the usage of complex and highly efficient agricultural machines and a high level of infrastructure development. Moreover, this phenomenon can be explained by protection and state support of agricultural production.
According to the data of the World Trade Organization, the United States is the largest exporter of agricultural products. Approximately 25% of agricultural products are exported. It takes the first place in the world in export of corn and wheat. Also the USA is one of the largest exporters of rice. Generally, the US production of corn amounts 45% of world production. A manufacturing of wheat of the United States makes nearly 13% of the world production. Furthermore, the United States is the world leader in production of soya beans.
The level of agricultural development in the United States is high due to few reasons. First of all, natural environment contributes to this development. The United States of America has fertile lands, which yield rich harvest. Furthermore, it is a flat country, where temperate climate and sufficient moisture are observed. Finally, as was mentioned above the USA practices new and high technologies in production.
The agriculture of the United States is equal approximately to 1% in the structure of GDP. Such result characterizes post-industrial economy of the country. In comparison with the US, this indicator in China is about 14%. These figures are typical for a young industrial economy, which has recently crossed the confines of agricultural production.
CHAPTER 2. Investigation of the level of military power of the United States of America and China
Nowadays the situation in the world is almost peaceful. There is no direct menace of nuclear war, the role of military force as foreign policy tool is diminished. Nevertheless, all developed countries are obliged to maintain internal order and keep peace. It is necessary to take border security under control and protect territorial integrity, in order to ensure its security and defense, when any situation occurs. Moreover, armed forces must be provided with modern military equipment and high technologies, as today all world trends lead to globalization. Therefore, armies of well-developed states must guarantee the security of the peoples and practice modern weapons and military machines.
However, frequently defense industrial base of majority countries in the world is unable to meet the needs of national army. Consequently, the demand on weapons and new technologies is covered by import. The world trade of weapons and military equipment reminds the most dominant position in international relations.
The United States has dramatically increased its presence in the world market of weapons and military equipment since the Cold War. It is the undisputed leader in trade of military production. According to the data of Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, the USA`s share of the world military export is equal to 30%, and this country is considered as the largest supplier of arms (Table 1). In contrast, China is one of the largest importers of weapons. It buys arms mainly from Russia.
The growth of capabilities of the US forces was the result of the implementation of the Clinton Doctrine. Due to the content of this doctrine, the main attention is concentrated on perfection of science-driven arms and widening scales of application of high and new technologies. An interesting point is that technologies permit to be at war without sufferers. It means that territories of the United States are not involved in the front because of some political disorder, or revolt in consequence of economic problems. Generally, it gives a chance to preserve hegemony of the United States of America without old methods of fight.
And the main point here is to encourage the further restructuring of the military industrial companies and scientific and technical centers that can create and develop these technologies. So, military-industrial doctrine becomes a part of national security strategy. And national technical-scientific and industrial basis is considered as the main element of this strategy.
This strategy happens to be a result of the global technological revolution. This revolution originates from a civil sphere. And it is based on two driving forces. The first force is the development of information technologies that changed the economic and social life and led to many consequences in the military sphere. One of these consequences is a work on purpose of the weapon. Different types of electronic systems for gathering of the prospecting data with their growing possibilities, and computers that can collect and distribute a great deal of information among consumers from these sources, which are also associated with information technologies.
In comparison with the United States, China does not represent such implementation of technologies in the military. It actively imports arms from other states. To facilitate the development of this sector Chinese follow the example of the US. China officially declared desire to reach military and technological parity with the United States.
Government of the United States of America officially supports companies, which produce weapons. There are different agencies formed from scientists, economists, and military experts. Their task is to practice all possible technologies and to develop strategy for prospective arms. It makes sense to consider the development of Stealth technologies of the United States. Generally, it is known that “stealth is the simple act of trying to hide or evade detection”. In essence, this technology allows the machine to be barely visible for any systems of detection. These technologies are based on the application of special absorbing materials, electronic equipment, and so on.
The Stealth technologies are founded and developed by Americans. Therefore, the U.S. is also ranked as a leader in this sphere. The first machine of the US Stealth technologies was known as F-117?, which was in a development process since 1975. The USA spent 4, 2 billion dollars for 59 aircrafts of F-117?. The government of the United States makes all efforts and invests a lot of money in development of their military power.
China also works hard on Stealth technologies. However, scientists deem that Chinese ‘trials of low-observable technologies’ are just in process of development. Basically, China imports the Stealth technologies from Russia. It means that the People's Republic of China is dependent nation to some extent.
Another important point that characterizes military power is the nuclear arms capability, or a weapon of mass destruction. Nuclear weapons are one of the main weapons of mass destruction. In a short time it can put out of action large numbers of people, destroy buildings and structures over large areas. The massive application of nuclear weapons is able to cause catastrophic consequences for all mankind.
The first application of nuclear weapon was practiced by the United States. In 1945 it dropped two nuclear bombs on Japanese cities, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This act led to death of more than 500 thousand persons.
Government of the United States explains that nuclear arms capability is the strategy of control and deterrent of opponents. And significant point of view is that country, which has weapons of mass destruction, is able to prevent the world war. The powerful military capacity, which causes a significant damage, always carries out the character of retaliatory deterrent of direct confrontation and unleashing of war. Theoretically, before the dropping of nuclear bombs, the enemy must be forewarned of the nuclear attack. In case of ignoring of this prevention it is supposed to launch one blow to cause the material damage. So, the weapon of mass destruction for the U.S. is like a status to take under control others.
According to the new political rules, the United States of America has the right to nuke in case when other states make use of nuclear, biological, chemical arms, and other type of weapons against the U.S. and its allies. Furthermore, the United States has the right to throw a nuclear weapon when the policy of the individual states is a threat to their national interests. In addition, when a country is going to become potential nuclear member and get necessary technical capabilities, it is considered sufficient reason to the U.S. attack. For instance, such situation was considered during so-called “Desert Storm” operation against Iraq in 1991.
China also has status of nuclear-weapon state. China declared that it does not intend to nuke first. China conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1964. Due to its policy the weapon of mass destruction indicates the power of deterrence. By the way, the level of nuclear capabilities is not as high as in the United States. China does not give away the information concerning its nuclear arsenal. Such tactics is connected with the low security of WMD in comparison with other nuclear states.
CHAPTER 3 Consideration of foreign policy of the United States and People's Republic of China
The United States is considered as a political leader in the world. The main strategies of the U.S. are democracy and liberalism, as forces of appeasement policy. Americans try to spread widely their policies over the world, including democracy. A lot of international politicians think that this strategy aims to have an influence upon other states and international events.
To describe the U.S. policy it is necessary to take into account their soft power. Soft power is the ability of a state to achieve the desired outcomes in international affairs through persuasion (attractive methods), rather than suppression (imposition, coercion). The effective soft power has a huge impact on economic and political stability of countries. Moreover, it influences the international relations.
Mainly, the soft power of the United States took an important place in the world because of the development of science and high technologies. This phenomenon to some extent facilitated the development of globalization in the world. Besides of new technologies, different brands of food restaurants and clothes increased popularity of the United States among people.
The soft power of China is also considered to be at high level. China has reinforced its attraction by access to its growing market and economic aid during financial crisis. China has also adjusted its foreign policy, as well as public diplomacy. It has become the member of the World Trade Organization. For the last years China has arranged its international affairs with different foreign institutions.
Nevertheless, the cooperation of the U.S with international institutions is at higher level. The United States plays the extremely important role in the international relations. This state has the most developed network of diplomatic representatives in the world.
The United States is foundation member of both, the United Nation Organization and the North Atlantic Alliance, and a member of the UN Security Council. U.S. takes an active part in solving almost all international conflicts and disputes.
For instance, the United States of America is involved in solving problems in Iran. The conflict history of Iran is the result of British protest concerning Iranian oil products. At that time the United States supported Great Britain. Later, the U.S. again faced the problems generated from Iran. The situation exerted oneself because of blaming for development of the nuclear weapon. In a result, the United States prohibited allies to deal with Iran and buy Iranian aircrafts.
The United States take an active part in Middle Eastern affairs. Historically, it was the reason of conflict with USSR. The Middle East was especially valuable region that compelled superpowers to compete there. Approximately in 1945 active oil recovery is conducted in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates. The large stock of oil in the Middle East provided a new political and economic importance of the region in the twentieth century.
Proving evidence was a pressure of arms race and struggle for spheres of influence in the countries of third world. Middle East was an old sphere of interest of Great Britain, and the sphere of active expansionist policy of the United States. Therefore, United States, given its strategic importance, economic and political significance, aimed to include the Middle East region in its sphere of influence in the confrontation with the USSR. However, the influence of the Soviet Union in the Middle East essentially became weak in 1975 when Egypt began to treat for peace with Israel.
In the result of this war world political order was changed. First of all, this change was associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War between the two camps that still ruled the world. Secondly, this war caused other conflicts, and to some extent, terrorist acts, as the United States still continued to interfere in countries of the Middle East.
This policy proves that United States is a country that leads all important events in the world. It is a member and founder of dominant international institutions. Therefore, the United States of America are often supported by allies. In addition, the participation of the U.S. in international conflicts and various events means that this country has all capabilities to be a leader in the world.
The analysis of economic development of the United States and China shows us that economic indicators of the U.S. are higher than Chinese indices. Considering the structure of U.S. and Chinese GDP, we see that the United States of America applies new and high technologies in production. And it results in manufacturing of high quality products. In comparison with the U.S., China demands more labor forces to achieve such volume of production. However, the goods produced by China are not such qualitative. If to consider economic development of both states, it is necessary to admit that United States has more favorable climate for agricultural sector.
The level of military power of the United States is stronger than Chinese one. The government of the United States maintains and invests in military development. This country is largest exporter of weapons. In addition, the United States is a country, which has dominant quantity of weapons of mass destruction. To some extent this fact gives a possibility to influence international relations.
Consideration of political activity of both states demonstrates us that these countries’ policy carries out the clear features of soft power. The main strategies of the U.S. policy are democracy and liberalism. The democracy of the USA is widely spread and considered as method of influence on the world. It is also mentioned above that the United States is political leader in the international arena. It is a founder and member of majority international organizations. It increases the U.S. impact on the world and security of state. For example, the NATO membership does not allow attacking the allies-members of this organization. Furthermore, in case of any military attack allies are obliged to maintain NATO`s member. So, this factor is also very important.
Generally, the United States is a very powerful state in every respect. It is well-developed country with the high level of military power and strong policy. Therefore, China is not real threat to the USA.