The history of development in philosophical thought was primarily based on Christian traditions and morality formed from religious doctrines. Nietzsche reveals real sources of philosophical thought that were predetermined by Christian morality for ages. As philosopher and art historian, he emphasized the ethical misunderstandings concentrated on irrelevant submission in the formation of morality.
Nietzsche’s work Beyond Good and Evilis devoted to the importance of free spirit and personal system of values. Personal ideas, objections and controversy, initially inherent to all human beings, were being tamed by public morality during long period of time. Moreover, this unbelievable injustice provoked sarcastic and bombastic tone in Nietzsche’s piece of work.
Devotional obedience unnaturally ceased by Christian religion provoked irritation in Nietzsche’s spacious mind. Irrationality of Christian limitations was so obvious for Nietzsche that he decided to emphasize it with sarcasm. He ceased the thirst for knowledge and the search for ultimate, uncompromised truth embedded in all human minds: “…it teaches the narrowing of perspectives, and thus, in a certain sense, that stupidity is a condition of life and development” (Nietzsche, 66).
The author unravels real gist of the nature representing it as the main principles of essence, but not someone’s creation, determination of which is to humiliate and to subdue the individuality. The irony used by Nietzsche symbolizes worldwide misleading reflected in the way of thinking: "for the glory of God," or "for the good of the soul": - this tyranny, this arbitrariness, this severe and magnificent stupidity, has educated the spirit…” (Nietzsche, 66). Using the word “tyranny”, Nietzsche means manipulation and subordination of public conscience by imposing principles and morality distant from individual evolution of conscience.
Such notion as “The moral imperative of nature… nor does it address itself to the individual (what does nature care for the individual!), but to nations, races, ages, and ranks; above all, however, to the animal "man" generally, to mankind” (Nietzsche, 66) reflects categorical, generalized and socially accepted perception of morality, rather than individually-formed scale of values. In the sentence "Nature shows herself as she is, in all her extravagant and indifferent magnificence, which is shocking, but nevertheless noble” Nietzsche (66) expresses the main materialistic idea, the concept devoted to the virtue of initial strength of the person abandoned in the solitude. It supposedly depicts the person, who does not try to substitute his or her individual thinking and responsibility for one’s own formation of values by religious limitation.
Several philosophers and schools of thought are mentioned by Nietzsche (65, 66). Aristotle’s ethics and other utilitarian beliefs are merely neglected the author’s sarcasm as conventional, stereotyped and predetermined. He mentioned that virtues and values proclaimed by these authors are for making public conscious to knuckle down to the power of religion. It does not explain the rules of nature, but only demotivate the desire to obtain the knowledge as a real virtue.
One of the most important Nietzsche’s statements in ethics declared that spirituality and religion are not equal. Spiritual values of society are made self-consciously by each person, and as a result, individual morality is ready to be held in society.
To sum up, it should be mentioned that the real virtues according Nietzsche’s ethics are the merits of free spirit, thirst for knowledge, strong will and power not to obey to public submission. Nietzsche explains Christian morality as the substitute for real individually-formed morality that can be focused on personal perception of ethical categories. The sarcasm and irony are used by the author to emphasize the obviousness of unnaturalness in Christian tradition. Religion became the source of irrationality rather than the source of ethical values and spiritual development, consequently, it is misleading for all mankind.
The progress of society highly depends on individual development of talented and inspired people, rather than on the possibility to control society by threatening and subordinating public thought. Each person can ethically develop oneself, and the high level of human consciousness is no longer depends on outer source of morality.