Social Sciences History

Aberdeen is a city located in Scotland. This city resides towards the north of River Dee and towards the south of River Don. This city extends 71.2 square miles. The city resides on many hills with the original city growing from Windmill hill, Castle hill and St Catherine's hill. It is the third most popular city in Scotland and 25th in the United Kingdom. It has an estimated population of about 210400 people. The city has a long sandy coastline.

To what extent have social conditions in Aberdeen changed since 1851? This investigation aims at describing how the social conditions in Aberdeen have changed over the years since 1851. It is highly relevant to give an explanation to changes in the social conditions of this City since 1851. This investigation focuses on describing the reasons for the changes, which have occurred in the social conditions of the people of Aberdeen over the years. The general truth is that this City has seen substantial changes in their social conditions. The main task ahead is figuring out why this has happened. It is also fundamental that this investigation comes up with reasons explaining how the changes have taken place over the years. Finally, it is crucial to explain what force has led to these changes over the years.

This experiment will focus on the general history of the City of Aberdeen from 1851 to the present. This will cover the population of the City from the year 1851 to present. It is highly salient to show whether the population of these City has increased or decreased over the year. In addition, it is indispensable to describe whether the change is a positive change or a negative change, giving any pertinent information about the change. This investigation involves carrying out research in books and sites over the internet. It involves a keen study of the City of Aberdeen in Scotland.

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This is a highly detailed research topic, which will take a lot of time. The reason behind the research taking a long period is that, information may be scattered and it takes time to gather all the pieces of information. Besides gathering, one requires to put the information together and come up with a satisfactory piece of research, which will cover all the necessary areas. The main sources of information on this investigation include books and some website information. After getting all the necessary information in this research, a report to that effect with a detailed conclusion is written. Finally, a reference from where all the information regarding the research will be beneficial. It will act as evidence of the areas in the books where all the information in the article derived.

Social conditions can be defined as, the state of a particular society as it exists. Usually, social conditions refer to a society as a whole in reference to the geographic or the political condition of the given region. In the 19th century, the major regions in Scotland were basically urban centers. Aberdeen region was among the biggest towns in the region as is the case today.

When looking at the social conditions of the people in Aberdeen, it is important to divide social conditions into three. It is crucial to take a look at this topic from the following angles. Firstly, it is fundamental to consider the health situation in this city during the period. Medicine and surgery made a great advancement in the region as at that period. In 1851, bearing in mind that the Aberdeen region lacked improved medical conditions; the life expectancy for men approximated to be 40 years. Women had a life expectancy of 44years while one out of seven children estimated to die before their first birthday. This statistic was very shocking but attributed to the poor health standards witnessed among the residents of this region. There was an increase in pressure for the limited medical facilities in this region. Outbreaks of diseases were a common thing among the people and, this saw that many people succumbed to the conditions. Diseases such as tuberculosis were a common phenomenon in the region. This disease saw the death rate increase rapidly in the region. However, in the year 1861, a Scotsman by the name Alexander Fleming discovered the penicillin to Tuberculosis and this ensured that this hazard brought to control.

However, this discovery did not ensure that the mortality rate reduced. There was still great pressure for the few available medical facilities in the region. Rapid growth in population led to overcrowding and, this region led to increased industrialization activities. This industrialization brought about the unprecedented problems of public sanitation. Shared facilities and poor sewage systems meant that diseases spread dangerously. In the 1880s, those who were not able to afford medical fees relied on house hospitals. These hospitals were mainly funded through donations and in order for them to admit a poor person had to be destitute and disabled. In the year 1900, there was an improvement in the general health facilities. This attributed to improved sanitation and better sewage maintenance.

However, typhoid still remained a major killer for the people in the region. Health insurance schemes discovered in  1911 and this greatly benefited individuals earning 160pounds and below. In 1951, TB increased its killing power and this caused shortages in the number of hospital beds in the region. This forced the Scottish to take the necessary action of airlifting its patients to Switzerland for treatment. In 1971, there was an introduction of the emergency contraceptive pill. This was so because the birth rate in the Aberdeen region was increasing tremendously. This ensured that the birth rate fell tremendously. By the late 20th century, the killer diseases such as typhoid, diphtheria and cholera were completely eradicated. However, there was an introduction of new killer diseases such as Cancer and Coronary heart diseases. In 2001, smoking was one of the greatest killers in the rejoin representing 24 percent of the deaths. However, medical facilities and sanitation have tremendously improved up to this date.

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The second topic of discussion when looking at the social conditions in Aberdeen region is the living conditions, of the people. Living conditions of the people in Aberdeen, (mainly families) can be described to be hard. Miners who had very large families built there houses out of granite with two to three rooms. They did this in order to supplement their incomes. However, majority of them lived in towns. The sleeping arrangements in the cottages were however, very complicated with many children sleeping in one bed. There was no indoor supply of water or bathrooms. The only method of heating during this period was through open fires. However, small businessmen, entrepreneurs and mine captains were among those who could afford more spacious houses. During the expansive industrialization period, many new estates built. There were elaborate transformations of the older estates making them more elaborate. The mining industry improved in the 19th century making the copper mines expand to the rural areas. Many rural areas in his region were in better condition. These entailed housing families with more rooms having bedrooms which were very overcrowded. Many towns had increased cases of prostitution. Prostitution made many women pregnant out of wedlock. This was a response to desperate times which made women, look for means of sustainability.

Crime, prostitution and rioting, were only one of the sides of life among the mining community. Mining villages and towns were also places where problems could be forgotten. This is done through attending of events organized by the local chapels such as, penny readings, bazaars and even improvement activities. The main aim of these activities was to help people to forget their problems and focus on the task ahead. Currently, living standards among the people in Aberdeen have improved with people's living standards rising higher by the years. This has really made the City grow to being the third most popular City in Scotland.

The third and the last topic of discussion in this report are family life of the people of Aberdeen since 1851 to the present year. Historical demographers have since long been debating on the nature of households in Aberdeen since 1851. Originally, many families adopted farming as a main source of income and livelihood. It was the household's duty to provide the required labor for the production of food in the region. Many households some forms of existence with the extended family having a majority of the people in Aberdeen. These families were many since there was a need for people to provide the required labor for the production of food in the farms. Household families' compositions were very important since every household required to have enough man-power to ensure a substantial production in the faming sector. Historically, agricultural activities including farming and livestock keeping supported the families in terms of rent payment and maintaining them. Many agricultural activities made possible due to the fact that there was sufficient size of land available in the rejoin. People, in those times, lived very simple lives and these made it possible for them to carry out their farming activities.

However, everything seems to have changed since that time. Families in Aberdeen have since shifted from extended family set up for simple families. This attributed to the fact that most people in Scotland have mainly adopted Christianity as the main religion in the area. Christianity mainly advocates for simple marriages and criticizes polygamy. Therefore, families are majorly small. In addition, due to improvement in the level of technology and advancement, people have shifted from farming being the main to industrialization. In addition, urbanization has discarded any possibility of family activities carried away since most of large tracks of land are built.

According to statistics from statistical data sheet of major towns in Scotland, the mortality rate in 1851- 1860 estimated as follows. Out of 2397 births recorded that year, there was estimated 71 deaths recorded. This gives a mortality rate of about 29. 6%. This rate increases rapidly over the years. This attributed to factors such as the killer diseases and the widespread poor health conditions over the years. The greatest figures ever recorded were in the year 1925 where there was a 53.6% mortality rate recorded. However, these figures went down over the years to approximately 21% as witnessed in 2001. Majority of the people who died were the young and the old people. This was attributed to the smoking life that adopted by a majority of the people in this City.

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In addition, statistics show that employment pattern has changed from 1851. In 1851 more than 705 of the people in Aberdeen carried out agricultural activities. This attributed to the availability of large tracks of land and required man power for that kind of job. There was a significant decline people over the years. This encouraged by the rapid growth in industries such as the textile industries. However, as these industries increased in number, the general population of the region reduced. The number of workers recorded in the region were, 380000 workers in 1851. These numbers grew over the years to 879000 workers which later increased to 1,902,000 workers in 1950. In the 20th century there was great diversity witnessed in the employment sector has several forms of employment emerged. This included the emergence of sectors such as the transport sectors. People became more open minded in terms of employment and these led to the establishment of more sectors of the economy.

In addition to employment, household's sizes played a major role in determining the history of Aberdeen over the years. In 1851, most of the household setting was rural. Due to the large tracks of land available, many of the residents lived in large sized houses where the family setting was basically extended. Many families were large in order to provide the required man-power for the production process. This setting has since changed over the years with many families being simple.

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