- Please respond to this topic with your answer to Problem #3.7 from Stallings’ text-book:
This chapter describes both "off the shell" and "end user programming"as types of applications. Discuss what is meant by these terms and provided some examples of each.
It is evident that not all the programs in the application are written by famous professional programmers. The "End users" who have all right tools in automate laboratories and also corporate data access, always fuse model reactors and apply animation on Web pages.
People always experience their computers as "end-users" of many packaged programs. It means they may fail to understand some of the programs. Another unfortunate thing is that the programmers may not know all the details of applications one may want to use. As the programmers try to meet all diverse needs of people, they end up bloating their invented programs with many features that people may never use.
Programming maybe understood easily by use of the metaphor – implying a desktop that has file cabinets; also a formula of many spreadsheet locations; a given sequence of all GUI actions; an application-given-specific language -- than on most conventional programming.
Please respond to this topic with your answer to Problem #3.9 from Stallings’ text-book:
- Two data centers used for retail credit authorization are located in two different major population centers, which are separated from each other by a large zone of very little population. Each data center is intended to cover a particular geographical area and thus contains data that reflect the account status of the cardholders in that area (only). Terminals for each area are connected to the corresponding data center. Communication between both data centers occurs only in case a cardholder from one geographical area shops in a retail credit establishment of the geographical area covered by the other data center.
- Classify the relationship between each terminal and the corresponding data center as either client/server or peer-to-peer.
The terminals rely on the clients’ response to every signal. They, therefore, solely depend on the clients’ case.
- Classify the relationship between both data centers as either client/server or peer-to-peer.
- Data centers are in peer- to-peer relationship as the retail credits that are established vary in geographical terms.
- Classify the database of the retail credit system as either partitioned or replicated.
- The database is partitioned as even those entities in various geographical locations can be easily mapped into one factor.
- Is this approach to distributed data processing suitable for the scenario described? Why or why not?
- It is since it puts into consideration all the issues that are in question above. It is also appropriate to analyze the whole issue.
- Would this approach be suitable if the two major population centers were close to each other? Why or why not?
- Yes, since it mostly relies on retail aspects and geographical boundaries come in as a secondary consideration.
- Please respond to this topic with your answer to Problem #17.7 from Englander's text-book:
Explain the trade-offs between contiguous, noncontiguous linked, and noncontiguous indexed file allocation. In particular, note the effect on sequential and random access methods.
The File Manager always controls all files in every system. Efficiency in such a system depends on:
- how all system’s files are clearly organized (sequential form, direct, or even indexed in sequential).
- how all of them are stored (in contiguous form, noncontiguously, or even indexed).
- how their records are structured.
- how all the access to the files is put under control.
Many of the applications put on parallel I/O always perform a non-contiguous file access. This means that, instead of it going out to access one block of verifiable data in a given file, a number of various smaller blocks of all data that is scattered all over needs to be accessed in all logical I/O operations. However, only very few file systems that have interfaces always directly support this non-contiguous form of file access.
In contrast to this, the most applicable parallel programming interface, known as MPI, always incorporates a highly exible model comprising of parallel I/O running through its interface. With the MPI-IO interface, arbitrary and non-contiguous file access systems are supported in a fashion that is uniform. Despite all considerable amounts of recent work done, in that field. This is when compared to all the performances of the storage systems for contiguous accesses.
- Please respond to this topic with your answer to Problem #17.9 from Englander's text-book: What are the advantages of partitioning a disk, rather than using the entire disk as one partition?
There are many advantages that partitioning a hard disk may have.
Separation of an operating system and the program files from all user files has benefits. It is evident that this practice will enable backups for images to exist only on the operating system and the software that is installed.
Partitioning will also enable one to have a separate section for OS, swapping and also the virtual memory. This will allow for many processes to take place at the same time.
Frequently used applications and programs can be allocated one place and also kept close to each other. Data analysis will be easy since it will be identifiable from one location with a lot of ease.
Cache and all log files can be separated from other files if partitioning is embraced. These can bring about the change in size in dynamical and rapid ways. The eventual outcome would be the system being rendered full.
Multi-boot setups, if applied, will allow all users to have many operating systems on one computer. For example, it is possible for one to install the Linux, Mac OS X or the Microsoft Windows OS’ on different created partitions on the same given hard disk. They also have an opportunity to decide whether to boot into any other compatible OS at instant power-up.
The practice of Protecting or even isolating files makes it easier and simple to recover any corrupted file systems and also operating system installation. In case one given partition is corrupted, the other file systems, at no instance, will be affected.
- What are the issues to be considered in global IT management?
Corporations all over the world have decided to go global in issues dealing with information technology. It managers for these organizations have realized the effectiveness of developing a strong Information Technology strategy. However, there are many issues that are necessary to be considered at all levels of global information technology management. They include:
IT is all about communicating. It means it is necessary to have a harmonized form of communication. However, there are multiple native languages all over the world thus posing a challenge to IT. The user interface becomes hard to decide on which language is appropriate. This is in application to videos, computer based applications, and documentation. It, therefore, increase the costs of labor since there are only few skilled workers who can understand many languages. The effect on hardware is immense. All Japanese characters, on hard ware, and also Chinese, require two bytes. Those from Thailand require three bytes. This is a great challenge that has to be addressed.
Systems development and any supporting issues
It has to be understood that IT applies on global grounds. It means all developments should be appropriate and applicable in all nations. Standards that apply to a given continent need to be followed. There are many applications, such as modems, that may work in one continent and not in another. The availability of technical staff is also another factor. Programmers are very few all over the world. They are on high demand, and this pose a challenge as the development environments also differ. The easiness with which software can be transferred from one region to another brings about complications. Most Softwares are developed for given countries and are not applicable in others.
The tax issues, software transferability and sharing of programs affect global IT management. The accounting standards always vary worldwide. Those applying to the renowned countries may not apply to the less developed nations. Calls for job protection also affect these policies.
Summarize the main points from this report.
It was the 10th anniversary for Global IT Management. ICT has greatly evolved into a prime enabling infrastructure among all industries of the world. It proves to be a serious driver of enhanced living conditions and opportunities around the globe. It is reported to have changed the economies of the world dramatically and it is predicted to keep up.
The research provided a unique platform that enables public-private discussions on best policies necessary and for determining all the actions that will further national ICT integration and innovation.
The exponential growth in all mobile devices, social media and also massive data are a prime driver of the famous process of hyperconnectivity. It is significantly transforming all aspects of society