Indian emerges as an independent nation free from imperial authority during the postclassical era. As a result, the Indian society was accustomed to regional kingdoms. However, Indian society had a great influence on the cultural, economical, political and social aspects of Southeast Asia. In this respect, Indian society used the wide trade system of the Indian Ocean basin to establish a political organization as well as an effective economic system out Southeast Asia region. Additionally, the Indian society also contributed to the spread of their religion practices in the region. Therefore, it is evident that Indian society has influenced the Southeast Asia region politically, culturally, socially and economically.
Basically the Indian society led to the creation and establishment of Islamic and Hindu kingdoms in Southeast Asia region. The national political rule that was used to rule the Indian society crumpled in 451 C.E following the defeat of Guptas by White Huns from mid Asia. However, in the 7th century, Buddhist ruler Harsha played a critical role of reunifying the Indian society. Consequently, this led to the change in political trends as well as emergence of Hindu kingdom. On the other hand, Islam was introduced in India by the Muslim traders and the Turkish- pastoralists who had moved from middle-Asia. Besides, Mahmud of Ghazni initiated several attacks in India in 11th century. This led to emergence of Delhi Sulnate (1206-1526) which contributed greatly in maintaining order in Northern India as well as increase Islamism in the region. Other major Kingdoms which emerged include The Chola (850-1267) and the kingdom of Vjayanagar (1336-1565).
According to Bentley et al., the Indian society has contributed significantly to the development of trade within and past the Indian Ocean basin. Consequently, this contributed positively to the establishment of relationship between Indian society and other societies. Besides, farmers adopted new irrigation methods including reservoir at Bhopal which enabled them to develop their agricultural practices as well as trade. Subsequently, the increased in food production led to increase in India population from 52 million to 105 million which in turned contributed to the growth of urban areas. Besides, most places around Asia began to produce various kinds of food including rice, barley and other cereals. The political empires including the Chola kingdom also critically influenced economic development in the region. Generally, Delhi emerged as the2nd largest Islamic city worldwide with a vast population of about 400 million. The Indian society played a critical role in the Indian Ocean basin and as result; it became the main merchant for goods from various places of the world including Southeast Asia, E. Africa, Arabia and Malaysia among others. Moreover, Indian artists contributed significantly in setting up cottage industries as a result of increase in demand for cotton worldwide. As a result, this led to creation of employment to many people around the world.
The caste structural framework transformed following the political and economical reforms in the region. Generally, codes of ethics to govern the actions and behavior of various groups were developed. As a result of expansion in trading activities in Indian society, the caste system spread to other part of India. In general, the influence of Indian societies has been felt in various parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, East Africa and many places surrounding Indian Ocean through the spread of their social practices and through intermarriage with other societies.
In conclusion, it is clear that the influence of Indian society has impacted greatly to the world history. The most important aspect of Indian society whose effects are still felt to present is the Islam and Hindu Kingdom. The cultural, social and political practices of Islam as well as Hindu have spread all over the world.