In order to determine the most effective ways of dealing with the resistance to change within the institution and ways of solving problems therein, a scientific research approach is used. This is aimed at ascertaining the needs of various parties within the institution and the reasons why they are adamant to accept change. The finding of the research will be used to draw conclusions and recommendations for change in culture within the school which will be used in decision making, promoting effectiveness in leadership and change in culture. The research is conducted using the methods of research that are described in the following section.
Both secondary and primary research methodologies are employed in conducting the research. The secondary research method is used to access and gather data from secondary sources which are based on school leadership and change. Secondary research approach is described to be an effective way of gathering sufficient data in a short period of time and at a low cost (Schniederjans, Schniederjans & Schniederjans 894). This method therefore is effective in research because it caters for the limitations in resources and time which characterize scientific investigations. Furthermore, secondary data approach is described to be effective in research because of the vast amount of data and information which is freely available and accessible in online databases (Kraleva 110). The secondary data which is collected in this research relate to the problems faced by learning institutions, leadership, change of culture and indicators of success and high performance within schools.
The primary research methodology is used to gather firsthand information from respondents selected from the stakeholders and members of the school community. Primary research method is described to be advantageous because it leads to collection of credible and reliable data from individuals who have sufficient knowledge and who are affected by the problem being investigated (Thomas, 124). The choice of primary research method in this investigation is therefore aimed at gathering data from teachers, students, parents, school administrators and the community on various aspects of instructional processes.
Both qualitative and quantitative research designs will be employed in the research. Qualitative research design is described as an effective approach of achieving an in-depth research and examination of a specific phenomenon (Schniederjans, Schniederjans & Schniederjans 889). This design will be used to achieve in-depth study through sufficient data on the factors and problems facing the school and ways through which these problems can be solved to cause a positive change in culture which meets the needs of all stakeholders. Qualitative research not limited to variables which are rigidly defined. As a result this method will be used to achieve the objectives of the research regardless of the factors and variables which generally affect learning institutions. More importantly qualitative research design is used as the best approach through which non-quantifiable data will be collected and analyzed for interpretation of meaning and recommendations.
Quantitative research design on the other hand will be used as an effective method through which statistical data will be gathered and analyzed. It is through a quantitative research design that independent and dependent variables are analyzed and studied in more detail (Myers 72). In addition, the quantitative research approach is preferred because it is more objective (Schniederjans, Schniederjans & Schniederjans 890). The quantitative data which is gathered in the research include school attendance rates, performance, teacher compensation, staff turnover rates and the costs associated with various educational processes.
Secondary data is collected through the application of search strategies such as Boolean search approach. This form of data collection is achieved through the use of key terms such as school leadership, cultural change, effective teaching and problems in schools. The secondary data is to be sourced from secondary information sources such as online databases and libraries such as Proquest and EBSCO. The secondary data will involve both quantitative and qualitative data which is gathered and presented for analysis.
The primary research will employ questionnaires and interviews as data collection tools. Questionnaires are used because they are described as more objective because they allow a standardized approach in gathering data (Thomas 123). More importantly, questionnaires are comparatively a quick approach for collecting data from a large group of respondents or research participants (Myers 91). Questionnaires are to be designed and presented to the respondents among sampled students, teachers, administrators, parents and members of the community. These questionnaires will therefore result in gathering sufficient and relevant data which will be used to meet the objectives of the research. Interviews on the other hand are used in data collection because they allow the investigator to probe deeper and therefore get a more comprehensive response from the study participant (Schniederjans, Schniederjans & Schniederjans 889). Additionally, interviews allow the researcher to provide clarifications which lead to collection of more accurate data (Myers 68).
The analysis of the gathered data will be achieved through quantitative and qualitative data analysis approaches which are effective for analysis of statistical and non-quantifiable data effectively. The analysis of the gathered data will also involve comparative analysis which is used to correlate primary and secondary data to come up with meaning and conclusions. Statistical packages such as excel and SPSS will be used to analyze the gathered data because of the effectiveness and accuracy in data analysis which is achieved through these tools (Schniederjans, Schniederjans & Schniederjans 886).
School Improvement Program and Related Recommendations
In the light of the findings of the research and the theory which is prescribed by past supporting literature, a school improvement program is designed and implemented to cause cultural change within the institution. In order to achieve this, a school improvement committee will be selected. The findings of the research will be presented to this committee in form of a report. The committee will them evaluate the finding of the research and discuss them which will form a basis for the design and implementation of a school improvement program. The school improvement program will be focused at promoting school leadership so that change can be encouraged. The goals of the school improvement program will therefore be achieved through the school leadership and the involvement of all stakeholders including parents and the community. The major goal of the school improvement program and the roles of the committee are to apply the research to promote collegiality, trust and confidence, innovation, appreciation and support, communication and involvement of all parties in decision making. It is argued that improvement is achieved in learning institution by identification of problems and applying evidence to solve them (Lang 1). Finally, the program will advocate for training and development of staff as a way of enhancing adoption and acceptance of change.
The resistance to change in culture and the problems facing the institution has led to a toxic environment which demonstrates the need for change through effective leadership. Problems such as low performance and attendance levels, high teacher turnover, school dropouts, drug abuse and early pregnancy, lack of teacher and student support programs and poor communication are attributed to the toxic environment within the institution. The application of scientific research findings and effective leadership will motivate change within the institution and development of a positive culture among members of the school society. Therefore supporting literature and research are to be applied by the school improvement committee to solve the problems facing institutions.