Nutrition transition is the ongoing trend in the underdeveloped world whereby there is an increase in consumption of sweeteners and fatty foods. Again, the consumption of cereals is declining and the intake of vegetables and fruits remains inadequate. The high number of overweight and underweight people within a country is a key challenge for the nationwide nutrition plan in the 21st century. The high number of overweight people is common in the population subgroups that are at risk of poverty and maternal health problems. Based on the research study done by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), pregnant women gain weight.
The Institute of Medicine has Released Guidelines for Weight Gain
The Institute of Medicine has released guidelines for weight gain during the period of pregnancy. However, the risk of gaining extra weight to pregnant mothers has increased over the years, regardless of the guidelines provided by the Institute of Medicine (Barker 2002). In response to this concern, sponsors have requested the food and nutrition board of the IOM to review their recommendations on weight gain during pregnancy. Again, the institute was asked to recommend ways to encourage the adoption of weight gain guidelines through strategies to assist practitioners and consumer education and public health strategies. One of the key issues that scientists and practitioners have faced in the last thirty years is the prevalence of obesity and overweight among American women of childbearing age (Haddad 2003). Based on the data collected by the National Centre of Health Statistics in the year 2004, it showed that almost two thirds of women of childbearing age were classified as overweight.
Therefore, gestation weight gain has become a challenge, since pregnant women do not have the capability of offering labour to the development of the country’s economy. Based on the recommendations and findings of the 2009 conference on the Amino Acid Fortification of Protein Food in Cambridge, USA, three population-based studies were designed. These studies highlighted the need to reduce the number of people who are malnourished, which leads to people being underweight (Caballero 2005). Therefore, the World Health Organisation and Amino Acid Fortification of Protein Food have formulated recommendations that would prevent malnutrition. Again, these recommendations have reduced both the number of overweight and underweight people.
The increasing number of both overweight and underweight people has challenged the implementation of the nutrition policy around the globe. Dietary and other related factors have led to an increase in chronic diseases. The vegetable intake has decreased in the Republic of Korea. Also, the decreased vegetable intake in the Republic of Korea has led to underweight, whereas the increased intake of fat foodstuffs in the country has led to obesity or overweight. Therefore, people in the country have a challenge to reinforce the policy of nutrition (Doak 2002).
A private public partnership is an understanding or an agreement between a private party and a contracting authority. This is where a private party performs a public task or offers a service on behalf of the contracting authority. It also receives the advantage of performing a community activity by way of compensation from a public fund (Anon 2007). Nevertheless, its charges are collected by a selective party from consumers of a service offered to them or a combination of such compensation and such charges or fees. Also, it is responsible for jeopardy arising from the presentation of the function in compliance with the project agreement.
Initiative taken by Ghana due to weight gain
The initiative of establishing the partnership was suggested at a gathering of the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program. Another example is that three different soap manufacturers, that is, Colgate, Unilever, and Procter and Gamble, decided to collaborate and sell more bars of soap than in the past in order to save lives of people (Yach 2008). A great significance of the initiatives shows that industrial marketers have made a crucial contribution. This contribution has led to the formulation of a successful health communication in Ghana, as the companies continue to join other countries to participate in the partnership for hand-washing. Again, the government of Ghana gave approval for the public-private partnership for the hand-washing with soap program. Therefore, it is evident that the hand-washing program has boosted the reduction of malnutrition all over the entire globe.
Activities and Nutrition are Essential for Preventing Chronic Diseases in California
Both regular physical activities and nutrition are essential for preventing chronic diseases. The creation of a healthy environment requires the participation of all parties in society. Based on the evidence provided by Lori Dorfman, the influence of both corporate and private practices on the social and physical environment will improve nutrition and physical activity. Partnership with the business sector offers opportunities for promoting physical activities and healthy eating habits. Lori also stated that public private partnerships and public health campaigns reduce the use of tobacco among young people (JS 2010). The California department of health services collaborated with local organisations to address the issue of malnutrition. Moreover, they increased the number of positions available to address physical activities among more than thirty six million residents.
The American Dietetic Association conducted a research on the perspectives of public health. The research showed that 400 million are obese, and 1.6 million adults are overweight. Public private partnerships are a mechanism through which healthy lifestyle initiatives are delivered to the public and each individual. They have become necessary due to the escalating health care costs associated with chronic diseases and overweight. Therefore, they have dismissed the government resources to address this issue (Guardian 2012).
Effective partnership is associated with sharing ideas, financial sources, advocacy expertise, specialized skills, accessing distribution systems, coordinating activities to reduce duplication of efforts, accessing client perspectives, and reaching the population to provide larger-scale and high-risk activities than any other could achieve. Ten per cent of the American adult population adheres to the healthy lifestyle pattern.
Also, a research showed the benefits of implementing interventions. These interventions included strategies to promote complimentary feeding, with or without food supplements, promotion of breastfeeding, micronutrient interventions, reduction of the disease burden, and general supportive strategies to improve both the whole society and separate communities. Strategies for breastfeeding have a significant effect on survival (ZA 2008).
According to the World Health Organisation, management of severe acute malnutrition reduced the case-fatality rate by 75 per cent. Recent studies conducted have shown that some of the new products in the market are ready-to-use therapeutic foods. This food can manage severe acute malnutrition in the society setting. Micronutrient interventions have been extremely effective for pregnant women. This included the provision of iron foliate and micronutrients, which reduced the slow birth rate. Again, the recommendation for micronutrient interventions for children included strategies for supplementation of Vitamin A, iron supplements, and preventive zinc supplements.
World Health Organisation and FAO Contribution to Nutrition Transition
The World Health Organisation conducted a research study on various mechanisms that can reduce malnutrition in both developed and underdeveloped countries. For example, it used the Essential Action Approach to promote the reduction of malnutrition in families around the globe. This approach supported critical points connected with the period of pregnancy. There is also an integrated approach that was formulated by the World Health Organisation. The objective of the intervention was to ensure that there is a reduction of malnutrition in families. There are three integrated approaches, which include the child nutrition program, the essential nutrition action, and the conditional cash transfer (Webb 2004).
FAO robustly emphasizes that food-based approaches, which comprise dietary diversification, food production, and food enrichment, are sustainable strategies for humanizing the micronutrient status of the population. Food-based approaches require people to grow crops on their farms so that there will not be deficiency of food in the global world. FAO recommends that the government should assist people in the country to ensure that the number of deaths in the region decreases. The United States department of health encourages people in the country to do agriculture, which is the main source of food for any developing or developed country (Health 2012).
Agricultural intervention has boosted many countries around the globe in that there is a reduction in the number of people suffering from malnutrition. Agricultural ways have the potential to influence nutritional outcomes in a sustainable way, but there is an inadequate understanding of the support base for this potential impact and of how best to achieve this potential. Agriculture is one of the main activities that the World Health Organisation is campaigning to people. People should use the approach to ensure that there is a reduction of malnutrition. The availability of food in the international markets has encouraged people to work hard so that everyone can leave a healthy life. FAO in collaboration with various food organisations advocated for the malnutrition-free world (Claeson 2000).
U.K Contribution in Enhancing Food Security
Education is one of the direct interventions that the U.K. government is encouraging among young people in the country so that they can maintain a good health. It is a direct approach because healthcare organisations have directly spoken to people. The U.K. has also used the agriculture approach to ensure that firms are involved in farming to produce quality products that satisfy the whole economy. The Food Standard Agency has ensured that quality foods are produced and distributed in the market (Health 2004). The International Obesity Task Force ensures that there is a reduction in the number of children suffering from obesity. Another approach the U.K. Department of Health has formulated is the standards. This is an indirect approach in that it ensures that quality products in the U.K. are produced for schools.
Contribution of Angola to African-Led Food Security Fund
Public nutrition can address the issue of climate change through various ways. Public nutrition focuses on the promotion of good health through primary intervention of nutrition-related illnesses in society. In this sense, every country in the world will be malnutrition-free; the climate change will not influence the living standards of people around the globe. The application of nutrition and food knowledge and research and policies to the improvement of the health of the population will not affect people’s health in case there is an environmental change, since they have covered all the problems (Daily 1998).
Angola has announced its contribution to African-led Food Security Fund. There, with these interventions, any climate change will not affect the health of people in society. Once people are equipped with nutrition knowledge, they become prepared for any climate problem that may arise. Normally, people have been equipped with the knowledge of public nutrition. Functional foods are perceived as one response due to the reason that they are deemed as a hyper-efficient mechanism for supplying necessary micronutrients. Nevertheless, an alternative response is urban and civic agriculture (Parry 2000). Finally, civic agriculture represents a holistic approach to food security that is directly related to environmental, social, and economic factors that affect people’s diet and health.
Nutrition transition has been an ongoing trend in the underdeveloped countries. This vice has been a extreme challenge to these countries. These countries have tried to counter the challenge through various organizations aids, educational campaigns, and non-governmental organizations. Nutrition transition has been improving with time but it is experiencing significant challenges that should be solved. Finally, one would recommend the entry of various party to counter its challenges.