There is a persistent argument on whether such machines as robots can replace humans’ operations, for instance, while working at call centers and operating rooms in hospitals. Therefore, artificial intelligence is changing thoughts and operations at the present time. Currently, the U.S. government can use drone aircrafts to execute assault missions and dangerous reconnaissance, thus reducing the risk of exposing soldiers to harm. Besides, computers can diagnose a specific disease, and some robotic devices can expedite delicate surgical operations. Banks, law offices, and manufacturing plants are now operating efficiently due to the usage of “smart machines.” However, analysts are afraid that artificial intelligence can bear devastating downsides. Some assert that fighting with machines would make it easy for people to start wars than if humans themselves were fighting. Economists worry that if robots and other kinds of artificial intelligence replace workers, unemployment rates will escalate. Robin Hansen, a professor of economics at George Mason University gives opposing views to those of Martin Ford’s ideas, an automation author, who supports the artificial intelligence.
Hansen’s and Ford’s Arguments
Martin Ford contents that the acceleration of IT leads to the study of machine’s formation and artificial intelligence (AI) playing the central role as computers will continue to perform significant education and training. He observes that the advancement in manufacturing automation and the emergence of commercial robots continue to lower chances for less skilled workers. Robin Hansen strongly asserts that artificial intelligence presents a significant risk of high unemployment. This happens when most of the world income is invested in the development of machines instead of humans’ needs. The main concern is why people should work if his or her work does not increase the income. In economic reality, Hanson’s argument makes sense, since machines can only play a role where the human’s labor value has fallen significantly as compared to the machines’ one.
Artificial Intelligence in Relation to Unemployment
Ford thinks that AI applications have the potential of exceeding an average worker’s ability of performing a number of routine tasks. The consequence is structural unemployment, which influences the workforce at all levels. Hansen does not see this happening in the nearest future. Now, computers and other machines’ intelligence cannot work like a human brain on a global scale, but in the future, artificial intelligence will play a more significant role. Majority of mainstream economists think that millions of jobs, for instance agricultural works become less popular with the introduction of mechanized farming equipments. Many workers also moved to other sectors like the service sector due to automation and globalization of manufacturing sectors. The opponent of this view Hansen argues that it is not sufficient to have a great number of powerful machines to satisfy humans’ needs; after all, better machines lead to a greater demand for humans.
Competitiveness of Innovations
Historically, technology influences one sector at a time and creates new opportunities for workers. Nowadays, there is a change of rules. What the economists cannot understand is that Information Technology is flexible and applicable anywhere, hence potentially cause unemployment. Artificial intelligence will result in massive unemployment as the innovations continue to take the centre stage. The technology providers continue to compete and innovate making artificial intelligence or other forms of automation more affordable and accessible to all sorts of businesses including the smallest ones thus replacing the human labor. This is because when capabilities increase and costs fall, robotics and other forms of artificial intelligence will tend to be more competitive in industries, which are labor intensive like fast food companies and will eventually put at risk millions of lower-wage employment opportunities. Machines cannot effectively replace most of the human’s tasks. This may not happen soon, but is highly possible in a century or two. Humans will attempt whole brain emulations at that time.
The Future of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics
As AI and robotics start invading traditional industries, it will be quite unlikely that any upcoming development sectors will be labor intensive in the future, for instance companies like Netflix, Google and Facebook or biotech industry companies, which have been technology intensive from inception employ only few workers. Indeed, broad deployment of robotics and artificial intelligence will potentially make the entire economy less labor intensive creating structural unemployment and the reduction of wages for all the workers at all levels. Computers can emulate humans but cannot replace them in all cases. A market of cheap brain emulations is not sustainable without humans’ input. Computers are proficient in such activities as chess since the rules are clear and possible moves are limited. The human language and brain are more difficult to comprehend and, therefore, artificial intelligence of computers cannot entirely replace humans at work.
Artificial intelligence relates to the human labor in any industry since robotics and computers require humans to operate on a constant basis. They can perform delicate surgical operations in hospitals or can be simply tools for launching assaults and attacks like it was in the case of U.S. drones. Robin Hansen gives opposing views to those of Martin Ford’s ideas. The latter supports artificial intelligence by saying that it cannot lead to massive unemployment. Majority of economists like Robin Hansen believes that artificial intelligence is an attribute to the loss of jobs. However, computers and robotics are not emotionally sensitive to operate without the humans’ inputs. AI can cause decrease a number of work places to some extent, but it cannot lead to total unemployment, since these machines cannot fully replace humans in all industrial sectors.