The term globalization can be defined in many ways, but its essential meaning is the free flow of people, ideas, technology, culture and goods among other things across the world (Smith & Doyle 2002). This is as a result of advanced information technology and transportation infrastructure. The media and especially the internet have facilitated the flow of information across the globe, and currently, one can know what is happening at a distant nation simply pressing the right button.
There are different components of globalization including socio-cultural, political, economical and technological. All these components have their controversial aspects for instance the socio-cultural components that have been blamed for eroding the culture of host or receiving nations. Developing countries, especially in Africa have adapted to the western culture especially through dressing and in some cases it has increased moral decadency in such nations. The political component has raised some controversies because some application of policies borrowed from one country may not work somewhere else. For instance, what works well in America may not work in China. Similarly, even though advanced technology has improved life, some of its aspects are harmful (Smith & Doyle 2002). For instance, e-waste is now a terribly significant environmental concern in the third world countries due to electronic waste dumping. Finally, economic globalization is controversial since some countries engage in trade only to benefit from others. For instance, China is a substantial exporter to many countries in Africa, but it does not import from such countries.
There are several ways in which globalization is changing world geographies including:
- Population growth and movement of people from one nation to another;
- Construction of cities to meet the demand of ever increasing population;
- Destruction of biodiversity for economic development (infrastructure and settlement)
- Goods produced in one country can be sold overseas.
The components of economic globalization include trade agreements, capital flow, transportation, communication, and technology transfer. Trade agreements are treaties signed between states to eliminate barriers and facilitate the free flow of goods from one country to another. Capital flow is the determinant of a decrease or increase in a country’s foreign or domestic assets. Transportation is the movement from one place to another, and this facilitates goods to be shipped from one point to another. Communication is a crucial aspect in economic globalization since it facilitates the transfer of information concerning trade from one point to another. Finally, the spread of technology helps to disperse the new ways of producing goods and services (Smith & Doyle 2002).
To sum up the whole discussion, there are many elements of controversy concerning globalization including environmental degradation, erosion of culture and failed or little international control. The ever increasing population has paved way for destruction of the natural environment to create land for agriculture, settlement and other economic development (Smith & Doyle 2002). Additionally, globalization erodes some cultural aspects due to interaction of people from all over the world. Finally, the free flow of people, information and goods may bring dire consequences not only to the safety of people, but also the environment.