Background to the Study
The factor of racial discrimination has become one of the development derailing factors in the modern society. The hyper toned efforts of racial-based sharing of economic resources and its competitive nature has even led to institutionalized racial discrimination in the form of white supremacy and other conceptions. Racial discrimination has transcended all boundaries of society and exists in almost all groupings of the human population. Racially motivated tendencies have been reported in schools, hospitals, work places, committees and in many other places. It is interesting to note that racism has become a major issue within correctional populations. Racial discrimination penetration into the correctional institutions and their population is far shocking and has significantly affected them. The number of people in prisons has been increasing day by day. For survival in prisons and other correctional centers, grouping along racial lines has become inevitable to convicts. There is need for governments and other stakeholders to ensure that correctional centers improve the lives of all individuals irrespective of their race, gender and religion.
In prisons, especially in the US, convicts belonging to a race that has few inmates are pitifully left to wallow in brutality and other disappointments associated with this social vice. In the US a majority of convicts are black people. This has further led to groupings in prisons that are defined by race; black or white. The black people movements in America have over the years decried the purported unjust manner in which whites have continued to sideline the black people in all aspects of living. Continued racial biasness in correctional institutions has jeopardized the efforts of seeking to ensure that white Americans embrace the realities of racism, white supremacy and its privileges. It id true to state that all people are prejudiced regardless of their skin color, origin and religion: black, Asian, Arab, Christian, Muslim, and Buddhist. Every person undermines and assumes anyone from that other race, in his/her own conscious and unconscious ways. Each one of us is loaded with racialist aspects of unfair stereotypes, long born racial enmities, raw anger and racial fears of the unknown. But just when we think we have disentangled ourselves from this vice of racism, we realize that we are still victims of the vicious circles of racism and our freedom from it remains a vanishing illusory mirage. And tolerance is all we can opt for.
In correctional pollutions, white people are perceived to have coined race and racism to protect their power. Consequently, the whites have enjoyed the privileges resulting from such systems and have thus collectively maintained them. The problem therefore does not come from the individual whites in correctional population but from this white supremacy, which is realized through systems existing in the institutions. This is very notable when it considered that the substantial white consensus on the decline of racism is not based on empirical evidence research shows that black men and women still face racial discrimination in daily life; not just in places like prisons but in every other aspect of life. Economic superiority of many whites in the US is protracted as the central force in the racial power fights. Whereas the racial and ideological differences could as well have their toll, it is notable that the white convicts are perceived to certainly stand strongly than their black counterparts, and their nationalities underline their vulnerability. Systemic racial discrimination, therefore, has perplexed courts, school officials and other public authorities.
Capitalizing on faked humanism message of tolerance, it is easy to diverge attention from the white supremacy in correctional institutions, to confronting racism among the individuals in these centers. Though it's still debatable, propagating white supremacy and its systematic institutions emerges as a major area of study. While many centers have started programs aimed at educating people on ways to deal with racism at the individual level through tolerance, the institutionalized nature of racism in these centers relieve the whites off the collective responsibility of confronting white supremacy. In meaningful understanding, analysis of emotional and individuals' psychology based on racism should not be regarded as superior to politics of institutions- since the result is the maintenance of white supremacy.
In the light of the racial inequality's infiltration into correctional populations, it is therefore gratifying to explore the major points and economic activities that reward either black or white people with the handicap that deters them from accessing equal services in correctional institutions. Ultimately, the impact of racial discrimination on the pollution's daily life and productivity should also be studied. While many parts of the world have been exposed to a lot of mass and civic education on racism, it is unfortunate that this type of discrimination still looms. The need to conduct an academically acclaimed study on the lives of black and white is agreeably justified. This study seeks to reveal the underplaying racial discrimination issues across the structure of correctional institutions and their populations.
This study seeks to unravel the racially precipitated power relations, how they impact on correctional populations and finally their effect on quality service delivery. The objective will be understood through answering the following questions;
1. Is the socio-economic base of correctional population rooted on racial discrimination?
2. Does this have any perceived implications on the population?
3. How has racial discrimination affected the lives of members of correctional population?
The study foresees the following challenges:
1. Due to time factor, this study will only afford a short time and therefore will rely on data presented in line with the lives of members of correctional population like convicts which may be biased.
2. The research only points to the poor situation of racism in correctional population and does not engage in identifying what correctional measures are sure-fire in putting the problems identified u
In agreeing that many studies have been conducted on how racial inequalities affect an economy and its unspeakable effect on correctional population, it is unfortunate to note that very few of these studies have channeled their efforts towards unraveling the manner in which racial discrimination and other such inequalities jeopardize the productivity of correctional institutions. The infamous rubbishing of the anti-inclusion of racer as a factor in the academic inquiry of the correctional centers has only been around for a few decades. Again, only a handful of scholars in the 19th century have queried the overstatement that racism has become the only tool for survival in correctional centers like prisons. The following resources will be very useful during the data collection stage of this research.
Mauer, (2006) articulates the need for societal coherence. By elaborating the circumstances in each distinct case in correction centers, the researcher remained in touch with the broader society, providing a spot on elaboration of the issues. Though the research avoids (the avoidance is tantamount) a confrontational rant, it effectively appeals to the sanity of humanity. The objectives of the research have social overtones, with quest on the place of the blacks and whites, whether they exist as racists within correctional centers. Clearly, he portends the irregularity of the persistent attacks on either white or black inmates by assailants of the opposite race. Such allegations should elicit a purposeful reaction from all quarters, political, cultural and academic. With the safety of either a black or white correctional center member at risk, authorities need to be concerned. Therefore, his study effectively invokes immediate action from the political and social arenas, a sure indication that he was equally appreciative of the mandatory roles correctional institutions play for the peaceful integration of the society.
Ridley, (2005) research ultimately aimed at accounting for the possibility of watered down cultural practices which gave prominence to acknowledgement and appreciation of the racial group's cultural roots. It sought to establish the likelihood of a bright future, its nature and inception. In the words of the researcher, the aim was to "discover the regard for ethnicity and if it was reflected in a determination to 'lovingly reassemble the pieces', despite the impossibility of concealing the white scars of restoration or whether this is a natural consequence of the tyranny of distance and time." This was particularly an intelligent technical approach because being a quantitative research; he needed to adopt a method that will offer huge chunks of data. This validates his use of secondary materials as a method of carrying out the research as eventually the data collected seems to overshadow any possibilities of eliciting it from an individual. Thus, the research methods could never have been relative given the nature of study chosen.
Joe, (2006) explores the propagation of racial imbalances that are inherent correctional institutions through the use of emotional complexity and intimate narrative of events. The complexity of racism in this context rebels against the rules of a simple conclusion. He unravels many social and psychological issues that cause racial discrimination in correctional centers and further proposes tolerance as the remedy. The book goes beyond efforts to provoke us to think about social class charged confrontations and further subliminally shows how passive economic prejudice and pre-conceived notions have become part and parcel of our society. The book shows us the truths of racial unfairness in a manner that is thought-provoking and addresses the mother of economic wars in the modern society: white supremacy and its systemic institutions.
The review of literature here shows the various discourses that have won the hearts of many scholars in this area. However, the insistence of making inquiries on the same area has over the years generated unnecessary debates and contradictions at various instances like caste inequalities while pushing gender discrimination, with all its relevance, at the periphery. This therefore becomes a very articulate cry for the need to have a focused study at the deepest level to investigate the inherent gender motivated inequalities within the India's agricultural fraternity. To fill this void, I will, therefore, provide a novel inquiry by placing this study among one of the most socially and economically suffocated groups India, the women workers in agriculture. And also study the implications of such deprivation on their health.