Motivation is any drive within an organism that appears to initiate, control or sustain certain behaviors. In all humans, behavior plays a very big role in the daily survival. There exist many types of theories that explain the various types of behaviors. One of them is known as drive-reduction theory. This theory is based on the idea that all bodies seek ways that will balance and maintain their survival. It explains most of the biological processes that are not under the control of a person such as hunger, sex drive and thirst. For instance, when a person is hungry, the motivation to look for food goes up; something makes the person look for food. This motivation later reduces after one is satisfied.
Cognitive theory of motivation however contrasts drive-reduction in many ways. It explains the role of thoughts and individual choices in achieving goals. Individuals are motivated by the choices they make. Those that know there thought patterns are able to change their behaviors. This is unlike drive-reduction that emphasizes on the motivation not under a person’s control. An example of a cognitive theory is in the studies. A student can be motivated to work hard in the studies by the awareness of the coming exams. Those who are not bothered can decide not to study.
Primary emotions are those that we experience as the first response to situations. These normally happen with the control of an individual. For instance, one may feel anger when annoyed or happiness after getting the news of a lottery win. They are instinctive and happen without the person thinking of them. Secondary emotions are those that result from primary emotions. These are simply feelings about your feelings. A mother may shout to a child for making her angry. One may feel guilty for getting angry to the best friend. These two types of emotions turn out to be a complex combination altogether. The display rules that exist really shape the way different emotions are expressed.
James-Lange theory of emotion states that emotions are caused by the physiological events that occur after an event or experience has occurred. When one is frightened, these physiological processes cause muscular tension or perspiration. Such bodily reactions prepare one for action, either to flee or react. Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, on the other hand, explains that after any stimulating occurrences, our emotions and physiological processes mentioned above are felt at the same time. There is no sequence in the processes. Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion combines the above theories. It emphasizes the Fact that after an eventuality has occurred; an arousal becomes the first step experienced. After this, a person tries to explain to find out what happens around by evaluating the feelings and the events during the arousal. One is thus able to apply some reasoning to explain emotions.
Temperament can be defined as the individual differences in terms of emotions. These individual personalities are never learned, rather they are innate. Thomas and Chess found out that children’s temperaments can be categorized into three; easy, difficult and slow-to-warm-up (Thomas and Chess 1977). Easy babies readily adopt new environments, have good eating habits and generally show fewer problems. Difficult babies cry a lot and are irritable. Finally, the slow-to-warm-up babies tend to be slow learners. They exhibit low levels of activities and have less confidence of approaching new people.
Kohlberg's stages of reasoning are very crucial in any event of decision making. For one to agree that “cheating is wrong”, he would first agree that if caught, punishment is inevitable. The second stage is the purpose orientation which is the point that would encourage one to go ahead due the gains expected. The third stage would also make one appear superior before the seniors. The next stage is the social-order orientation that would guarantee punishment on the culprit. The social contract orientation is the fifth stage that would make cheating unfair game amongst the peers. Last but not least is the universal ethical principle. This makes cheating a universally unethical act. Applying this reasoning would lead to one agreeing that cheating is wrong.
Happy, long term marriages are made by the following; sacrifices and compromise amongst the couples, the ability to adjust the personality traits that each couple has. The presence of children also makes the families happier and long lasting as both parents commit into the upbringing of children. Finally, there are also economic matters that must be well taken care of.