The art of making policy choices is often influenced by numerous factors in the political cycle, whose interaction deserves consideration. This brings an important element regarding the importance for one to establish the causal sequences leading to the phenomenon necessitating policy formulation. Stone observes that there is a fundamental need to establish causal sequences, since these provide the strategic visions in guiding some issues; hence, making clear cut differences between the political choices (Stone, 2002). This is essentially important as it enables one to identify key issues that deserve to be addressed in a formal procedure in order to impact the production of positive policy choices.Moreover, making critical policy choices involves rearranging needs such that there is the element of prioritization. This forms a key failure in some policy making processes, which have previously ended up not addressing the initially intended goals and objectives. Hence, it is important to learn the art of including some things while excluding others, and have a different view of the world events despite the out pouring of normative and cognitive decisions (Stone, 2002). Another key element in the making of policy choices entails the incorporation of an efficient participatory framework. Stone (2002) remarks that, "one plays even more just to play, and the greater satisfaction comes from being in the game" (p.219). Hence, participation fundamentally leads to the production of practical, representative, and efficient policy choices.Difficulty in Achieving Rationality in policy choice
A good policy making process should actively pursue guidelines of the rational policy model. This fundamentally relies upon the provision of certain decision making instruments in order to guarantee the component of rationality. This entails a proper definition of the goals and objectives, establishment of an alternative criterion in case of failure, and subjecting preceding consequences of proposed actions to a proper evaluation framework. These elements are difficult to attain in the practical world due to the existence of various impedances, which primarily emanate from the emergence of different views from the representative interest groups. Hence in order to subdue all the interest groups there is need to conduct an efficient mobilization program. Stone (2002) defines mobilization as "the process by which effects and experiences are converted into organized efforts to bring about change" (p.217). However, still the mobilization process needs to follow proper channel of advocacy principles and processes to avoid failure, which is direly challenging.Another key problem towards the achievement of rationality in the policy choice is the implementation of an alternative framework especially once the previous one is deemed to fail. Stone observes that is it important to choose the most preferred alternative, which is capable of attaining the desired goal (Stone, 2002). However, the alternative means needs to portray significant representation of all the existing interest groups, which presents challenges that may finally lead to failure with regard to agreement and infusion of previously declined objectives. Moreover, there are some outside contending forces capable of robbing legitimate policies of values like equality, legitimacy, and justice (Stone, 2002). In essence, the elements of legitimacy, equality and justice should be the key focus of any policy formulation framework; hence, failure to attain them could potential affect achievement of the desired rationality index. Furthermore, rationality could also be affected by the existence of certain autonomy factors, which primarily emanated from the desire of some people feeling like the views being represented, are based on personal preferences and ambitions. Hence, in such cases it is difficult to incorporate the inner motives into the policy making framework since these are rarely outwardly expressed by the participants.