Business environment and ethics are the main focus of the book; it discusses the general behavior and the related factors that help to determine the underlying reasons as to why people behave in one way or the other. Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with morality, moral issues of what is right and what is wrong. With global changes and economic hardships that have thrown the world into disarray, the world population and the consumers at large are left grappling with how to manage the meager resources at their disposal, and to ensure environmental management, and sustainability is not lost in the mainstream undertaking. This has thrown consumers into moral conundrum, of accessing environmental friendly green products at an extra cost and accessing relatively less expensive products that are generally hazardous to the environment. There is always a right thing to do on moral principle, at the same time the best step to undertake depend on the situations, ultimately relying on group of people, communities, nations and the world. The analysis of the book is based on its merits and demerits on businesses.
Organizations and businesses all over the world have employees. These are the people responsible for the running of these organizations and upon whom the success of the organization depends on. Working environments and businesses help to determine ways in which people respond to certain issues, based on the original or preconceived ideas that help shape their level of thinking. Employees in organizations, businesses and financial institutions provide manpower for production purposes, in ensuring that organizations succeed in production lines. There are several factors that help determine employee’s commitment in business practices they operate in, be it on private or public venture. Some of these factors are; terms and condition of work, salary and remuneration packages, work environment, management policies and welfare systems catering for social, economic and personal lives of employees.
Merits of the book
Business management competencies like change management, contract management, benefit analysis, financial management, marketing, negotiation, organizational awareness, outcome measures and evaluation, project management and strategy planning is an important key issue to consider when developing the best competencies for evaluation in the selection process. This can be employed in techniques for considering the critical event interview. Critical incidence method which is an elaborate one; on one interview that involve soliciting critical information and incidences from participants and detailing what the participants were anticipating, sensing, and engaging in during the process. The critical incidence is a characteristic and challenging event that embodies the most aspect of the job. Business management competencies are used by employers for the purposes of ensuring that business succeed, by putting the right people in the business and engaging the employment of business management competencies. (Reynolds, 2008).
Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction is a value judgment by an individual worker. If job values are perceived as being fulfilled, the employees will experience the pleasurable emotions of satisfaction. If they are perceived as being frustrating, the employees will experience the immeasurable emotions of dissatisfaction. This raises one big question, ‘what values do employees seek from their jobs?’ In the realm of the work itself, most employees want work that is personally interesting and significant, success and sense of accomplishment, progress, growth, responsibility, autonomy, role clarity, and lack of conflict, feedback concerning performances, freedom from physical strain, benefits and security in the realm of promotions and enough money to meet expenses. Other factors like working conditions, most people would prefer convenient location and hours; safe and attractive physical environment, equipments and resources that facilitate work accomplishment to boost their performances.
Employees like supervisors who are considerate, honest, fair, and competent, who recognize and reward good performances and who allow some elements of participation in decision making. Employees also like organizations which show basic interest for employees and employee’s welfare, values and principles. The above underlying factors are important in determining the reasons as to which the employees attitudes may be influenced. The measure of employee’s attitudes is portrayed by the establishment of the organizational rules and principles as discussed above. The terms of service and conditions of work plays a role in determining how the employees will behave at the work place, how their attitudes will be shaped and how they will react and relate with management, the core workers and the customers of the organization.
Utilitarianism as a principle of management advocates for the provision of serene and harm free environment. This should be provided in the business cycles. The owners of businesses, management and operators in the business environment should be judged by the consequences for good or bad motives. Businesses to engage in practices that are not harmful to the environment, practices that do not endanger the lives of all the individuals concerned in production, the consumers of the products and the entire public. Utilitarianism in business management, production and operations as outlined in the book is a key component in creating a business environment that puts the interest of key stakeholder at the center stage in order to realize success and achieve the objectives of the business. For example, companies that mint money, and release it to the public when it is contaminated with cocaine, coupled by more contaminations during drug deals where the money changes hands. And the traces are then found in virtually all the currency notes in the U.S. Then virtually everybody in the U.S is assumed to be taking illegal drug directly or indirectly. There are various ethical issues and concerns when it comes to handling of all types of drugs both for leisure, medical concerns and guinea pig exercises. The limited consensus on the very appropriate and candid theory on deciding what is right, and what is wrong or how individuals should behave on different and similar cases. Utilitarianism ethical theory postulates that individual actions on ethical rules should be judged according to their overall consequences for good or bad motives.
Non-maleficence is an ethical principle postulating that do not do harm or harm anybody. One should refrain from inflicting pain and harm on others, refrain from placing others at risky situations. Business environments should not subject the lives of workers to potential threats like accidents, exposure to poisonous substances, tiring engagements without appropriate rest and malpractices geared to defraud public and other institutions. Ethical concerns in businesses are meant to advocate for and provide free and protective environments for business dealings, positive competition, and sound rivalry for the benefit of both the public and business enterprises. Cut throat completions and illegal deals aimed at benefiting one party and jeopardizing the operations of another party are discouraged in businesses as indicated in the manuscript. For example, cases of cocaine being found in most of the note currencies in the U.S, the drug peddlers who trade the illegal drug in the public are against the principle of non-maleficence in business. Cocaine is a drug with adverse effects on human life, making it an illegal substance. It puts the life of users and non users who handle it unsuspectingly in jeopardy. Therefore upon discovering it in unfamiliar circumstances as in the case of the currencies, the authorities are obliged to inform the public on the health risks associated with cocaine found in the notes irrespective of its quantity. The principle calls for not harming others, creating risk awareness on substances suspected to be risky to human life. Businesses should operate with that principle. (Mann, 1999).
Demerits of the book
The book sets the bar high for principles of governance and business management. Entire social, Economic and corporate responsibilities of businesses are subject to environments provided by governments, and authorities in territories where businesses operate. It is the responsibility of any business venture to put into perspectives systems that ensure illegal practices are suppressed. Ethical concerns in running of businesses affairs should be enhanced by legislations provided by authorities. Businesses alone cannot facilitate better practices if not compelled by law. The book therefore, fails to put into perspective the obligation of the governments in providing peaceful environment, encouraging policies, tax management systems that do not exploit businesses and creating markets for companies to attract them to operate in any given geographical locality. Issues of ethics concern lives and activities of individual participants but do not provide benchmarks for profit maximization and loss minimization, the sole objectives of business dealings and ventures.
Future of the book
The book provides a rich source of data for legalization of business practices, putting concerns, welfare and interest of all stake holders in to perspective. It provides rich data for ethical concerns, fair business practices and protection of the environment, management policies and devises best methods for keeping businesses afloat in the field of rivalry and stiff competition. It is a resource to be used by current and to be entrepreneurs, in establishing business practices that would put the interest of management, environment, employees and general public at heart, protecting the interest of stakeholder and public, by ensuring that business malpractices and illegal deals are prevented. The book is useful for future business deals, but the role of authorities in providing attractive environment for carrying out business ventures should be clearly defined by the book.