For an aircraft to be considered worthy and fit to grace the skies with the heartbeats of its occupants in its maintained normality, many major and minor assessments have to be polished to offer it the credibility of doing so. This paper will explore my overview and in-depth investigation considerations that have to be put in place, so as to keep an aircraft in the skies for the longest period, safely through its course, from the commencement of its mission to its destiny. Therefore, my study will mostly focus on the aircraft performance in relation to the soundness and safety of the machine itself and its occupants/operators. This brings the in the idea of the Air.
Traffic Management (ATM) system which must be built on a strong foundation, a top-down and performance motivated advancement that ignites quantifiable and assessable performance targets in the four ATM key performance areas namely: Safety, Capacity, Efficiency, and Environmental impact. This essay describes the advances that should be inculcated in the aircraft performance modeling and proposals for the future improvement. The user requirements are identified that affect the choices to be made. The realistic limitations that the potential givers of source data experience are talked about as well.
Keywords: Air Traffic Management (ATM) System
The performance of an aircraft largely depends on its maintenance. “Performance” is a phrase used to illustrate the capacity of an aircraft to achieve things that credit it with the credibility for the certain purposes. For instance, an airplane’s ability to land and take off in an extremely short distance is a significant aspect to the pilot who operates it in the airfields. Its capability to carry and transmit bulky and heavy loads, flying at topmost velocities at high altitudes, or travelling vast distances is indispensable performance for operators of airline and managerial type airplanes. The chief factors of maintained and performance are departure and the distance of landing, tempo of climb, top limit/ceiling, load, range, momentum, maneuverability, steadiness, and fuel saving. These are all related directly to its speed: how minimum and maximum? Range: How far? Endurance: How long? However, a few of these factors are often directly contrasting: an example is the aircraft’s high speed in relation to the shortness of landing distance; long range in opposition to enormous payload; as well as high rate of climb against fuel economy. It is the supremacy of one or more of these factors, which firmly put into consideration the differences between aircrafts, also explains the high degree of specialty that exists in contemporary aircrafts.
An assortment of items of airplanes exemplary performance effects from the arrangement of the airplane and power plant distinctiveness. What defines an airplane are the aerodynamic attributes of the airplane that explains the strength or power and push necessities at a variety of settings of flight. Power plant characteristics, on the other hand, define the strength as well as thrust that exist at certain situations of flight. The harmonizing of the aerodynamic relationship with the power plant should be perfectly executed by the manufacturer to offer utmost performance at the definite design provision; e.g. range, endurance and climb.
A lot of factors need to be a prerequisite for buying and operating an aircraft. These in general reflect to the performance and its maintenance. One should start by communicating to himself/herself even though most people may think one is insane about thinking of such an initiative. This self analysis might not surprise them after all. The critical question should be; what is my reason for buying? This might be for individual use, business, venture, training, enjoyment, tax benefit or whatever the reason one might come up with, just be precisely specific. However, the umbrella factor here is the cost. Sometimes cheap can be expensive, so adding up your merits and deducting the demerits is a significant factor.
The Air Traffic Control (ATC) system of any airstrip is a lifeline to all aircrafts, since this department is mandated monitor regularly the movement of aircrafts in parallel and/or concurrent times. There are two factors that affect the departure and landing of airplanes: conflict on departure and conflict on descent. The former, in a reported case, is when in an ASRS report, an [airplane A] made a broad left turn after departure, while the aircraft B, also a heavy air carrier of similar type departing the same runway made a narrow left turn. A loss of separation resulted by the conflicting performance displayed by these two aircrafts. As the controller was busy with other aircrafts, they were already about 4 miles apart, but converging speedily. This led to one of the aircrafts climbing steeply to widen the gap between them. I tend to think that the main reason of this occurrence was that aircraft A turned much wider than anticipated, and aircraft B turning much more harshly and climbing much more speedily than anticipated. In a nutshell, if an average or rather standard rate turn cannot be established, or a climb/descent rate is expected to be other than normal, the controller should be notified immediately that an alternate plan can be used to guarantee the separation. There is a number of aircrafts using the ATC system today. Therefore, excellent communication, and an unambiguous understanding between the controller and pilot, on what is anticipated is quite essential for a smooth, safe and sound flight.
There also must be a look into the factors that have an effect on the aircraft performance, which includes the aircraft weight, atmospheric conditions, landing strip environment, and the essential physical laws governing the forces on an airplane. Even during emergencies, pilots may need ‘to land immediately at the closest available airport,’ ("Reclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and the Untold Story of the Men and Women Who Kept America Flying", p.125). Examples of unforeseen performance that create problems for ATC are an aircraft that is leaving the airstrip leveling off momentarily mounting airspeed, and unintentionally overtaking the first departure, airplane clearing the runway sluggishly after landing, following an in a go-around for the subsequent aircraft. Pilot's faulting in notification after hell has broken lose and consequently SID restrictions are unable to react promptly, Pilot's tolerating clearance for an instant departure, and then delaying in position, aircraft hastily slowing to come up to speed, leading to undue vectors for other aircraft, Pilots' accepting an elevation crossing restriction, and then announcing later that he is not capable to obey, and last but not the least divergence from an assigned path or vector heading for weather evasion without ATC authorization.
All of the major items of an air travel performance entail steady-state flight conditions and balance of the airplane. An airplane only remains steady, balanced in equilibrium when the lift that is equivalent to the airplane weight and the thrust also is same as the drag of the aircraft. This, with no doubt, keeps it in balance for either tale-off or landing. It is practical that each and every part of the airplane that is open to the elements of air donates to the drag; although, it is only the wings that offer lift of any consequence.
The Climb of an aircraft depends upon its thrust. It is also called Reserve power. This is the available power over and above that is necessary to keep up the horizontal flight at a given momentum. Therefore, if an airplane is outfitted with an engine that produces a total available horsepower of 300 and the airplane needs only 250 horsepower at a definite point flight speed; the power for the climb is 50 horsepower. Although, the expressions “power” and “thrust” are from time to time used interchangeably, incorrectly implying that they are synonymous, it is vital to differentiate the two while discussing climb performance.
In a nutshell flight, performance culminates factors that are closely related. Presently, there are more than a few ATM applications that are dependent on the information of the expected flight paths of the aircrafts considered. The ATC system is a disseminated system; hence from a safety and competence point of perspective, it is vital that in all applications. Therefore, this should be put into practice for a competitive flight performance in future.