Most federal government systems consist of three units. These units include the judiciary, the executive, and the legislative. The judiciary is the legal aspect of the government that mainly deals with enforcing the laws that govern a country. The head of the judiciary is the chief justice, who has a judicial service committee. The executive consists of the president. He is the overall decision maker in any federal government system. The legislative branch consists of the senators, who act as lawmakers. They are electorate positions. This paper will analyze some legal aspects of the federal government system, how the different units interact, and how effective the system can be.
Roles of the Three Arms of Government
- The Executive
The overall bearer of all the executive power is the office of the president. However, he usually delegates to members of the cabinet and other government officials.
- The president is the head of state, as well as the government.
- The president is also the commander in chief of the armed forces.
- The president must ensure that all citizens abide by the constitution. Therefore, he must defend and protect it at all times.
- The president has the duty to sign a bill, which the congress passes for to become law.
- He also signs treaties and agreements with foreign nations, though such a move must have a two-thirds backing of the congress.
- He is the head of the senate.
- In case of a tie, in a senate vote, he has the right to vote (Akhtar Majeed).
- The judicial branch
- The legislative branch
- Its main duty is to clarify and apply laws.
- The Supreme Court conducts the adjudication of legal cases involving the federal government and legal disputes between states.
- The judicial branch, through the Supreme Court, interprets the U.S constitution to the public and other groups.
- Other types of courts like the tax and bankruptcy handle specific categories of cases.
- The court of appeals has the duty to hear cases that the lower courts handled, but a victim made an appeal.
- The court of appeal also listens to the direct appeals from government agencies.
- The Supreme Court also bears original jurisdiction for the specific categories of cases (Sheldon & Wasby, 2002).
- The legislative branch consists of the U.S Congress. The congress consists of the senate officials and the House of Representatives.
- The constitution of the United States has bestowed numerous powers on the congress.
- The congress has the right to set/ impose and collect taxes from the public.
- The congress has the duty to punish victims of counterfeit.
- It also involves itself in the improvement of technology and science through the issuance of patents.
- The congress also creates federal courts.
- The congress also enforces laws to govern the execution of powers.
How the Executive Relates with the Judiciary
In most cases, this branches of government work hand in hand with each other. For example, the branch of the executive, whose head is the president, has the power and duty to appoint high profile government officials, and to sign treaties with foreign countries.
However, the judicial department can nullify such a move, if the president executed it outside the right legislation process.
Similarly, it is true that the Supreme Court has powers within its court system. However, the president, who is the executive head, has the power to make judicial appointments, interpret decisions that courts have made, and offer amnesty to prisoners.
How the Executive Relates with the Legislative Branch
These two branches relate to each other in different aspects. For example, the president has the power of making senior appointments in the government. He also is the final man to pass a bill to law. However, the congress also has the power to nullify the president’s decision, especially if more than two thirds of the congress is not in agreement with that decision. The congress can then proceed to form a committee to investigate the president’s decision.
In addition, the congress has a duty to formulate legislation and pass them into law. However, the president decides whether the legislation supports the welfare of citizens or not.
How the Legislative Relates with the Judiciary Branch
The congress has the power to determine the size of the federal court system. It also has the power to rewrite laws, which the courts have misinterpreted, and even make restrictions for appellate jurisdiction. The congress is also the branch that makes amendments to laws that they find unconstitutional (Wagoner, 2004).