Western civilization has attained after several pathetic and bloodshed decades. History of human life had a constant transformation of civilization which is still going on. West was started to be civilized since late fifteenth and early sixteenth century, however, the civilized western society still has margin to be civilized. The racial, sociopolitical and socioeconomic circumstances are still not at par level when it quantified at civilization standards. Therefore, the history of civilization of western society from 1589 till to date achieved radical millstones but still needs to achieve more (Meyer).
List and analyze the difference between the new scientific views of the world and traditional medieval views. How did standards for ascertaining the “truth” differ between these two perspectives?
The journey of world is based on transformation from old, traditional medieval views to new scientific views. An industrial, social, scientific and educational revolution in the western society has had changed the standards and thoughts and broader the human vision.
There are three basic questions that actually work to revolutionize the human thoughts and views. 1) Who am I? 2) What is my individual significance in the world? 3) Is there any meaning of my individuality? These three questions have played rhetorical role in the western modern civilization.
The traditional medieval views about the questions cited above were much conservative. The ancient society and people did not know about their individuality its significance and the means to live. They had no concerns and care beyond themselves, they are wrapped in the selfishness. On the other hand the modern thought have developed community system and social justice system which revolutionized the concept of human and commune. The community system strengthened and all become allied to each other to achieve the progress.
There is a huge difference between both of the eras while ascertaining the truth. The medieval views are so backward and the new scientific views are revolutionary to its last extent up till now.
How did Enlightenment ideas influence the American Revolution and Constitution? How did the American attempt differ from earlier European attempts to incorporate Enlightenment ideals into political rule?
The enlightenment idea was first introduced in late seventeenth century and it was shaped up as a strong movement of enlightenment in eighteenth century. It not only caught up Europe but also influenced the America (Nash, 2000).
It is a right of every human being to enjoy the basic civil rights on earth. This was enlightenment idea which initiated the revolution in American constitution. American congressional reconstruction between 1863 -1877 had initiated the amendments in constitution which were associated with the power of people, civil rights, and self independence. The 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments are still renowned as the constitutional legacies of enlightenment era ("Constitution for the United States of America").
These constitutional amendments had opened the equal opportunities for everyone as it was written by historian “All the public schools, colleges, and universities of this State, supported in whole or in part by the public funds, shall be free and open to all the children and youths of the State, without regard to race or color” (Franklin, 1994).
The American constitutional amendments were quite sincerely and very precisely taken for the political stability. The amendments have everything which people needs to prosper their lives especially in the chaos situation of south. At this point, Abraham Lincoln initiated reconstruction, prepared, and approved the amendments in constitution through congress. These amendments are for the people that are why these are different from Europe.
What were the major causes of the French Revolution? Were short term or long term factors more significant for producing the revolution?
In 1789 France was in great trouble by facing economic, political and social constraints which than initiated the French revolution. There were a number of factors behind the revolution, for instance, national debt, taxation, failure of Louis reforms and social and individual exercise of freedom (Cody).
Bad government, insufficient tax culture and lack of freedom were the long term factors which had initiated the revolutionary thought in the people of France. The high populated nation was converted in a mob when it went for revolution. The unfair system penetrated panic in the population to snatch their freedom from the rulers/leaders ("corner of the world ").
The growing problems had waked the sense of equality and freedom of individuals in the high rising pollution of France. The philosophies and social theories presented by the enlightenment intellects leaded the people for revolution (Rudé, 1994).
What do you think were the three most important inventions of the industrial age? How did they change the production process?
The industrial revolution changed the super power pragmatism and initiated the war of mechanics and economy. Industrial revolution was started in 18th century and then recognized, realized and speedup after 1850. Machines were replaced the humans and number of new industries discovered, moreover, the overall industry was optimized (Usher, 1920).
Three most important inventions of the industrial age were canals, stem engine and in the second industrial revolution in 1850 the electricity power generation played pivotal role to optimize the industry. The first mechanized industry was textile industry and the three inventions are widely considered key drivers of the industrial revolution (Bose).
Canals provide water supply to the fields to grow textile crop, stem engine and then electricity provide energy to speedily produce the products. Therefore, these three inventions of industrial revolution were the key ones (Nardinelli).
In what ways did the ideas and actions of liberals, nationalists, and socialists challenge conservatives between 1815 and 1850?
The war of ideology was fought between the different ideology holders’ liberals, nationalists’ socialists and conservatives. They were quite firm on there beliefs which made them ideology centric.
The liberals and conservatives battle divided the country into to ideas. The conservatives favored the central government system, to uphold and protect the colonial institutions and practice them as they were. On the other hand the liberals did not support the idea of conservatives and wants to establish a state on the European enlightenment and to limit the church and military privileges (Schlesinger).
Nationalism was another battle fought by America. The white nationalism was the
Ideology of white people based on racial definition of national identity. The idea was to make a separate while state for while nation and or native supremacy. On the other hand, the conservatives were moderate and they completely opposed the idea.
Socialist’s ideology was the moderate ideology from other two ideologies discussed above. It did not penetrate much panic in the conservative ideology leaders, however, it was a separate thought with different group of people. The socialist ideology wants to build community system in the United States which does not had any racial or any other panicking element in it. therefore, socialists were not dealt as the nationalism and liberalism ideology.