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Ivan Van Sertima subscribes to the theory which suggests a connection on relations between the Americas indigenous people who moved and settled into Americas before 10,000BC and people from continents, such as Europe, Africa, and Asia which took place before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in Caribbean in 1442. This was what; Ivan called the Pre-columbian trans-oceanic contact.

1)      What similarities do you see of ancient civilization of Ghana, Mali and Songhai?

 They all had series of leadership which was depicted by transfer of power from one empire ruler to another by either war or death and all the empires ruled the same area.  For instance, the empire of Mali rose on what was before the throne of Ghana. The empire of Mali took leadership mantle in the thirteenth century when Ghana had internal problems, which caused dissatisfaction and disintegration on the Ghana Empire.

The empire of Songhai came to place when the death of Mansa Musa of the Mali empire.

Songhai had extended their boundaries further to Ghana and Mali. The kingdom was one of the most powerful kingdoms in West Africa and since Ghana, Mali and Songhai were all traders and businessmen and women, Songhai was the commerce hub for all the three empires. They all participated in barter trade.

2)      Why did Europeans turn to Africa for slavery labor in the Americas and Caribbean?

The act of slavery started in 17th century by the Europeans and Arabs; in 15th century millions of slaves were sent to Europe they were mostly from East, Central and West Africa the Europeans were strategic in their positioning of their economies. This was the age or the advent of industrialization. They opted for Africans because of, African were cheap source of labor for their industries.  They knew that if they took African laborers, they would make handsome profits.  

In Africa there was no enough resistance to counter their constant raids and invasion; it was hence cheap and easy for them to take slaves. Their collaboration with African local leaders was strategic since they used the manufactured products for exchange. For example the Egyptians raided their neighbors and traded them as slaves.

Among the reasons for continued slave trade was that it was a means of making money for the familiar people, large tracks of communal land posed a need to acquire adequate laborers and farm hands. This could be sufficiently achieved by slave trade.

Africans were also archaic in thinking and employed crude and primitive technologies or techniques to solve their problems and this made Africans to be chosen because they did not possess the skills required for the industrial age.

The middle passage was the stage when millions of ships departed from Europe with manufactured goods which were exchanged with captured Africans who were transported across the Atlantic. The trade was commonly known as triangular trade which was conducted among West Africa and the European power, in the late 16th century to late 19th century.  

The use of slaves was essential to growing of crops to the Europeans, 

The middle passage was organized by powerful companies and a not individual hence it was hard to fight against them. A single cruise was a huge economic triumph. They exchanged their manufactured goods with millions of slaves.

A large number of the slaves died, approximately 15% while in transit and capturing, averagely it was approximated to four million deaths of the African slaves. Among them, many causes of deaths were starvation due to the length of the journey. As when the meals would diminish the slaveholders took priority over the slaves. Diseases such as dysentery, small pox and measles were another cause since they were very easily spread due to the size of the quarters.

Slavery has always been termed as hardship, but the enslaved Africans had it more rough and most of the times opted death than life, they were termed as cargo and treated not like human beings but animals and worthless creatures, they were used for exchange in marketing, the treatment of the slaves differed as they all had different values such as men who were considered to have value than ladies and kids. Slave punishment was very common, sometimes they were beaten by whipping with no mercy at all. For an instance one of the worst punishments was for rebellion, where a captain punished one slave by forcing him to kill another one and eat his heart and liver.

Slaves resisted in various ways, one major resistance was refusal to eat and suicide the later being the most frequent, though they were  kept away from means of suicide, they always managed in one way or another by even jumping overboard

 Being humans most of the slaves were unable to eat due to being depressed and treated inhumanly. An example is when Zong a British slaver took way too many of the captives and ended up over crowding the ship which made the voyage slow. As a result the captain decided to get rid of some of the slaves by throwing them into the sea, quite a number of the slaves died while other chose to drown them selves

The indentured servitude refers to a practice of cheap labor over a long period of time, the Chesapeake was a colonial group located in British America centered on Chesapeake Bay. The colonies were interested in the bay since it was enriched with docking ships, rich many species of fisheries and many plantations, so as the agriculture grew in the area so was the need for more workers which was determined by the indentured servitude. Native Americans could not work efficiently in the plantations hence the slavery started in Chesapeake. More and more slaves were imported and it became the leading slavery importer.

The factors that caused assimilation and acculturation was when the newcomers absorbed the beliefs and values of the new area that they got in. as the requirement of more workers increased the number of Africans increased as well in Chesapeake, lawmakers feared the outgrowing number of the slaves.

British troops sailed up the Chesapeake in 1812, where they built a bridge connecting Virginia`s shores. Most of the colonies would send their people to explore the riches of Virginia this was in order to reduce the European form invading.

The American Revolutionary war started when there was a disagreement between the great parliament of Britain and the thirteen colonies due to stamp act. The colonialist stated that it was unfair for them to be charged tax as they were English men.

At the beginning of the war the Americans decided to quickly damage the colonialists trading activities, especially the slaves. The fire broke out when the British troops were sent to fight the American colonialists in 1974, after early British accomplishment the war came to an end. They used the acquired dominance to capture the American coastlines.

The others who supplied the war with weapons were France Spain and Dutch; later the British army’s submit the war and accepted the power of the United States over the terrain bordered approximately by what is now Canada to the north.

Black American served on both sides during the war, the British had promised freedom to those who served, at that time there were many black units which promised freedom if they were served.

During the war most of the slaves escaped into the chaos and joined British lines. British evacuated thousands of slaves at the end of the war others were resettled in West Indies and others in the Great Britain. In 1776 the new nation of the United States was created after the colonies declared independence.

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