Hong Kong is characterized by diversity in religions. Some of the most common forms of religions include: Confucianism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism as well as Hinduism. Thus, the city has various religious groups that form different cultures in terms of their worship. There are about 700,000 Buddhists, 320,000 Christians, 90,000 Muslims and 40,000 Hindus and other religions (Tsang, 1995). On the other hand, the most dominant religions in Tokyo are Shintoism, Islam, Christianity and Buddhism. In this city, Christianity has a major influence in the mainstream culture. Approximately 70 percent of Japanese belong to a certain religion. On the same, about 60 percent of people do not believe in God while 55 percent do not believe in Buddha (Edwin, 2003). Thus, it is evident that the two cities are multi-religious due to freedom of worship. This has allowed people to establish various religions based on their faith.
The culture of Hong Kong is determined by the fact that most of its people are ethnically Chinese. Thus, the dominant culture is drawn from the eastern culture. However, the culture has been influenced by Western cultures to some extent. Socially, people’s relationships are defined by the Hong Kong Matrimonial Ordinance, a law that was passed in 1972. This law led to banning of concubine as well as any form of marriage between people of the same family. Moreover, the law declares that one should have only one partner. Notably, majority of people in Hong Kong use the Cantonese language even though some are able to use Chinese and English. Just like Hong Kong, Tokyo has been able to retain its rich culture (Barbara, 1989). Various cultures have been blended from rural areas that are used in this city. This includes forms of entertainment, food as well as festivals. As a result, there are diverse cosmopolitan lifestyles. Therefore, Tokyo depicts the rich history of Japan. This is mainly depicted by the Tokyo National Museum where various arts are preserved. Some of the festivals in the city include Sanno, Snja and others.
The socio-political culture of Tokyo is highly defined by its metropolitan nature. Being the capital city of Japan, it houses various administrative institutions. Essentially, the city has about 39 municipalities in its two islands. Moreover, it is also a center for about 23 wards, districts, towns among other administrative divisions that contribute to the centrality of administrative institution in the city. On the other hand, Hong Kong in China is subdivided into 18 districts. In each district, a district council acts as the representative of the government especially on local matters that entails public affairs (Tsang, 1995). This is done through the district offices. Therefore, community programs, cultural activities among other projects at the local level are implemented at the district level. Thus, just like Tokyo which is a center for administration in Japan, Hong Kong also plays some administrative role in the government activities in China. This shows some similarities in their social-political culture.
Over the years, air pollution has been the main environmental issue in Hong Kong. For decades, Hong Kong has been facing increased air pollution due to local street forms of pollution as well as regional smog. Notably, diesel automobiles are the main causes of street level pollution. On the other hand, smog is caused by various forms of pollutants such as those from industries, vehicles as well as power plans. Some of the pollutants pearl into the river delta making it a major environmental challenge. These forms of pollutants are being addressed through combined measures to control pollution from vehicles, industries as well as from power plants (Edwin, 2003). On the contrary, the major environmental problem issue in Tokyo is also air pollution. Being a highly industrialized city, automobiles emit gases such as nitrogen dioxide in large quantities in the air. Increase of the air pollution by vehicles has been facilitated by the fact that manufacturers have failed to meet the emission standards as prescribed on the Ordinance on Environmental Preservation. Some of these vehicles include buses, trucks as well as other special category vehicles (Barbara, 1989). An exception is personal cars. This has significantly contributed to the global warming as it has been established that temperature in Japan has increased by 1°C for the past 100 years. This phenomenon has been attributed by increased emission of gases such as carbon dioxide and other green house gases in the atmosphere. Thus, it can be established that the two cities are faced by the same environmental issue. This is simply because both cities are highly industrialized.
In conclusion, both Hong Kong and Tokyo have had significant developments in their history. This has made them rise to the level of metropolitan cities in the world. However, the growth of the two cities is being affected by some factors such as pollution, increased population, political instability, etc. In order to have a better future, it is important for the cities to adopt a policy that will ensure their continued growth in all areas. This may entail population control as well as establishing mechanisms to control air pollution.