The American Revolution is the course of the military and political events in the English colonies in North America, which happened in 1775–1783. The main stage of the Revolution was the War of Independence of the United States, and its outcome - the Treaty of Paris (1783) - the defeat of Britain, and the recognition of a new state, the United States of America.
In the middle of the 18th century, the British authorities did their best to restrict the freedom of the North American colonies. Southern planters were supposed to sell tobacco to England at reduced prices, and buy cloth, dishes, and iron tools at an inflated price. The industrialists of the north were forbidden to build metalworking manufactories. Merchants were forbidden to trade with other countries.
After the end of the Seven Years’ War, England expanded its colonial possessions and turned out to be a debtor. The new king of England, George III, decided to increase the taxes that were supposed to go to pay off military debts. English governors in North America began to introduce new taxes without agreeing with the state legislatures.
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In 1763, the government of George III issued a decree stating that colonists were prohibited from settling west of the Allegheny Mountains, in Indian territories. This decree caused particular discontent among farmers whose lands had already been exhausted. After all, the western lands had not been mastered by the Europeans yet, and could bring a good income. Small tenants were forced to put an end to their hopes of becoming owners of the land too. Realizing that such actions of the metropolis would cause protest in the colonies, the English parliament decided to deploy its troops on American territories. It was done under the pretext of fighting the Indians.
The customary freedoms of Americans were called into question, since, according to the order of the English parliament, the authorities could freely look for any premises in search of smuggled goods. Any newspapers and magazines could be censored.
Control of Industrial Development
England was not interested in the development of industry in the colonies, as they could create serious competition. It was beneficial for the authorities to import raw materials into the metropolis, and in return, send finished industrial goods to the colonies.
In 1765, a law on the “stamp duty” was passed, the essence of which was that when buying any product and issuing any document, an American had to pay a tax to the British treasury. In Boston, the capital of Massachusetts, in 1765, the organization “Sons of Liberty” appeared. This association became the head of the resistance movement to English innovations. Using the support of the Whig party, the Americans were able to abolish the “stamp duty” in 1766. However, the confrontation between England and its colonies continued. As a result of the defeat of England and its expulsion from the territory of North America, a new state was founded and recognized, the United States of America.