Chapter seven of the article Chinese literature from 1937 to the present is an analysis of the Second Sino-Japanese War. The war broke out near Marco Polo Bridge in the southwest of Beijing. The Japanese troops used the excuse for searching for a soldier who had gone missing to demand entry into the city. However, the soldier did not enter the city, and it was the reason why the soldiers fired shots on him. This article emphasis is on the aftermath of the war and both the long term and short lasting consequences of the war on the literature scene. This chapter notes that the universities, cultural institutions, and publishing institutions were destroyed, and writers displaced and forced to live itinerant lives. This resulted to writers from this region to disperse in the Diaspora across all corners of the globe.
Although the Second Sino-Japanese War led to a massive instability and geopolitical fragmentation for writers, it also provided a platform for literature to create hope and sanity during and after the war. New literacy networks were developed, and these writers (Chang & Owen, 2010) ventured on new literacy scenes. There is no formal relationship between printed literature and web literature. Some web authors argue that web literatures are normally used online whereby most of the people who find success in the web move to the Print literature in the end. Nevertheless, these literatures have been used to change patterns of censorship in the modern society. Web literatures have widely been used to promote the growth of businesses through various means such as advertising in the web.
In examining these issues, the book is organized by dynastic and time, both of which are traditional ways of writing literature history. More options that could be organized to write literature history includes genre, bibliography, and cultural contributions. Based on this book, the improvement of the traditional ways of writing literatures will boost the growth of businesses and expand the sources of deriving solutions in the future endeavors. As far as web literature is concerned, the basic principles of web censorship are no different to those applied to printed literature such as post-publication screening, pre-publication self-censorship, and registration. The author states that ISBN numbers and publication should contain should be available for the available literatures on the internet.
As it is evident, the entire Chinese internet domain must present registration number provided by the local authority. The author states that the members of the members of discussion forum must sign an agreement promising not to post illegal contents. Next, the moderators accomplish the same function as publishing house editors in ensuring that no sensitive content is published. Finally, the state can declare the online publication illegal. Most literally websites prefer to play it safe, making it sure that no offensive content makes it past the moderators. In assessing this information, the author clearly shows that the web literatures should be transparent to the person who is accessing.
Under cultural contribution, the writer can examines the transformational literature created over this period and its corresponding cultural contribution in the society. Additionally, it is crucial to understand that the social systems remain dynamic, and literature work has a cultural contribution. Organizing the work in the basis cultural contributions involves exploring issues such as art and literature influence on the local culture of the Chinese society. This is the difference between this format and the traditional ways, which do not take into account such aspects. It is worth noting that many of today’s Chinese cultural influence in the southeast Asia has been because of continued development of the legacy culture over the years. One advantage of organizing the work in this form is its ability to help reference the work in a cultural basis but has a disadvantage in that it needed a lot of research, which includes Statistical data that are current. This research would take a lot of time and resources and it faced some challenges such as inadequate information. Inadequate information could not contribute cultural practices in the society. The rapid advancement of digital interactive media has an abundant effect on the Chinese literally world. The literary written for publication in the worldwide web has promoted the growth of the society.
In this chapter, there is a massive narrative of people’s life in line with the Chinese history from 1937 to the present. Based on the sub topic titled "Literature for Resistance," the authors discuss how the war led to a new age hereby referred as modern theater (spoken drama). In August 1937, twelve National Salvation Drama Troupes were organized in China. There are many writers including Cao Yu (1910–1996), who wrote the famous play titled Thunderstorm. Ba Jin’s (1904–2005) wrote plays that focused on modernization and enlighten Guo Moruo who wrote several historical plays, Yang Hansheng (1902–1993) who wrote about the Taipling rebellion in his Tale of the Heavenly Kingdom literature works, Song Zhidi’s (1914–1956) who wrote political satires. All these are just but a few examples of prominent writers in that has contributed in the Chinese literature in the 20th and the 21st century. The difference between a bibliographical way of literature organization and the traditional ways is that the other ways only describes the works of others in a haphazard way, unlike this literature organization that describes its work in a precise way.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Organizing the article in the form of Bibliography has the advantages of helping the author to organize their work in an effective format. This format presents a discussion and an understanding of each character discussed and their work. Therefore, this method aided the reference of work since it is more convincing than organizing the work in other forms that only focus on context. This is different from organizing the work in other forms that only focuses on the context of the literature but is comprehensible in terms of the person that did what and when. The disadvantages are that it consumes a lot of time to plan or organize your work correctly in this format (Chang & Owen, 2010). Normally, this method requires a lot of time for planning and organizing your work in the correct way.