Long before the invention of computer communication system based on computer networks, the only mode of communication between machines of calculations and computers that had been already in existence was humans, who acted as carriers of instructions between them. Since that time, much advancement has been made in the communication sector. It is this technological advancement that sets forth the study of optical multiplexing technologies that saw researchers visiting the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This research work included the study of the communication ratification process of networking standards considering that this institution was a technological nerve center. Further, the study saw the team interviewing a technical team from the General Electric and Bell labs, who were partners in managing their telephone connections. Further, they had an opportunity to investigate both current and upcoming developments in the field of multicore processors and multiprocessor computers from major chipmakers, since all these were found in the institution.
The study focuses on the optical time division multiplexing technology. This is basically a technology that operates on the basis of high speed transmissions. Besides, this technology uses pulses that are extremely narrow and have a greater bandwidth thereby producing more efficient spectra of optical fibers. In its operations, the study notes that time division multiplexing causes a synthesis of high bit rate streams of data by slipping a stream of light into the required domain of optical multiplexing. Further, it was observable that time division multiplexing allows for simultaneous multiple signals to the same optical fiber. However, there is a marked difference in realizations of the time division multiplexing and the WDM types of technologies. According to the interviews conducted with system operators, the time division multiplexing technology has been recently used to obtain a single light stream of up to 40 GB / s over rate. In this system, such sources of light as mode-locked laser light sources produce a sequence of extremely narrow optical pulses, that are directed into an N zero data stream and an N data stream meant for different channel signals by XGb/s. In this eventuality, there is a slip signal modulation together with one clock cycle delay that cause multiplexing of data that results from the total rate that can be approximately (N*X) Gb /s. The extensive research that covered five different systems within the institution found out that overall rates noted in time division multiplexing systems went up to the level of 200Gb /s or even beyond. Essentially, such kinds of high speed fiber dispersion systems use two different methods in their resolutions. These include the dispersion management, which is basically a dispersion that occurs through a compensation fiber and eventually cause the total dispersion of zero. Alternatively, they may use the technology of soliton transmission, which must take into consideration the signal power, a shape of the pulse and the compression using dispersal effects modulated with the self-phase technology to solve problems. The study has proven that the time division multiplexing technology supports to a large extent a long distance and high capacity transmissions achieve better technical solutions (Arora, Subramaniam, 2002).
The study also analyzed a wavelength division multiplexing technology unit under the guidance of a specialist. The specialist was able to explain that the exponential growth in technology, brought about mainly by the entry of the internet, made many carriers find it very useful in the field of the fiber technology. According to them, the installation of spare fibers found extensive use in a new growth and new capacities. They further explained three methods of capacity expansion. These include installing more cables, increasing system bitrates to multiplex more signals and wavelength multiplexing. The research has found out that it is generally preferable to install more cables in several instances, particularly, in areas considered to be metropolitan, since the fiber technology has become considerably cheaper and more efficient to install. (Tomlinson, 1978). However, in cases whereby conduit systems are not available or a completely new infrastructure is required, this technology may just prove too expensive to implement. Nonetheless, an undertaking to increase only system bitrates may as well prove to be expensive if not more. Wavelength-division multiplexing has been found to work quite simpler than it often appears to be. For instance, the study considered the fact that people are always able to notice such different components of the chromatic spectra as red, blue and yellow colors. The findings are that these colors undergo transmission through space in unison and may mix up properly in space. However, they are quite easy to be separated using a prism, separating sun rays into a variety of colors (see Fig. 1) (Delange, 1970).
However, some improvements have been made to this system giving a new model known as “Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing” because current systems only offer from 4 to 32 wavelength channels. The research has investigated modifications done to come up with a new model. This has a technical requirement of lasers only that are of specific wavelengths and which are quite stable in addition. De-multiplexers of the dense wavelength-division multiplexer are capable of identifying each wavelength within the dense region without any kind of crosstalk. According to the interview, the wavelength-division multiplexer has several advantages that have become worth pursuing, since they are quite usable. Individual wavelengths can be elucidated from a normal link making it unnecessary to render currently used equipment as obsolete. Furthermore, this undertaking merely needs laser transmitters that have been chosen for wavelengths that would be a perfect match for the wavelength-division multiplexer, thereby making sure that each channel gets appropriate decoding at the receiving end (Arora, Subramaniam, 2002).