Pumping of water from fresh water sources such as rivers, lakes, dams among others has proven to be another viable technique. This is the most convenient method, as it does not rely on the weather patterns of the arid area (Wheater, Mathias and Li 2010). This ensures a steady supply of water. There is also a lesser risk of contamination as the water travels in pipes. Contamination can only occur at the source. However, it might not be the most cost-effective technique. This is because many resources are needed in pumping this water. For example, if the source of fresh water is far away, great lengths of the pipeline are required in order to deliver the water. Water pumps are also required, which may be expensive. In the case of long distances, more than one water pump is needed. This is because as the distance increases, the pressure of the first pump dissipates and another pump is needed to boost up the pressure. Another cost comes in terms of maintenance of the pipeline in the event of bursts or blockages. The terrain over which this pipeline is going to travel also matters. The rougher the terrain, the more expensive construction and maintenance are going to be. Finally, this technique can lead to exhaustion of the water source, which could result in negative environmental impacts.
In conclusion, a lot of feasibility factors need to be considered when providing fresh water to arid areas. Most notable is the weather patterns of the area. The number of people in need of water is also an influential factor, as many people will require an earth dam instead of a water pan. The soil type also needs to be considered as this influences water retention (Pielou 2000). Another important factor, especially when sinking boreholes, is the location of fault lines. The location, where the borehole is to be drilled, needs to be mapped in order to find out where fault lines lie. If the location lies above a fault line, drilling of the borehole should be relocated to another place. When assessing these techniques, the most fundamental question is: how any of these techniques is sustainable. This refers to its reliability and sustainability in the long-term. The more reliable a technique, the more feasible it is going to be. In this case, the borehole is more sustainable than other techniques. This is because fewer resources are required in maintaining it, especially if a mechanical suction device that is easy to operate, is used to draw water. Sinking, if the borehole itself is less expensive and renewability of underground water is higher, than that of surface water. Sinking several boreholes in an area ensures sustainability of the supply of water.