Science and technology was instrumental in numerous aspects in London between 1500 and 1900. This is a period that witnessed the rise of numerous scientists at the frontier of medical research to unearth facts that assisted them in formulation of laws. As many doctors embraced science and technology, they undertook to perform an admirable work of studying the human body and its diseases. By 1500, physicians used their knowledge in medical research and technology to dissect living pigs with the aim of establishing how brain controlled the body. Andreas Vesalius who was renaissance anatomist requested physicians to conduct dissections to uncover their own observations regarding what earlier scientists had handed down.
In addition, 1600 was a period that witnessed much advancement in the field of science and technology. For example William Harvey was a notable figure in carrying out numerous experiments; one notable one was the one that he used to prove the flow of blood. From other scientific disciplines, many doctors borrowed a leaf to help them explain sickness and health (Wear, 1992). Most of the doctor’s observations were based on counts of science over time. Physics and chemistry are some of the disciplines in science that played a vital role in changing the lives of people. Many discoveries were made on the basis of science to improve the lives of people and change the history of London.
In 1700, the process of experimenting and measuring began. This was a process of enlightenment that began and advocated for science as a tool of progress. Contemporaries celebrated the scientific genius personalities like Isaac Newton, Herman Boerhaave among others who played an instrumental role in shaping the developing a form of what was referred to as Newtonian medicine. This medicine was based on the experiment and measurement. Through the help of scientific knowledge, many physicians felt they should claim superiority over contemporary healers like barber-surgeons and midwives. Science and technology was also instrumental in propelling the ultimate lucrative medical marketplace.
In 1800, the process of using technology and science to make observations on patients in hospitals began. London produced numerous physicians who basically worked on clinical research that provided opportunities to the physicians to make precise observations on patients. In case a patient died, the physicians could then dissect the corpse to figure out what actually caused the death of the individual. This approach of discovering the cause of death to a patient soon spread throughout Western medicine (Bynum et al 2006). 1800 also saw the introduction of laboratories to carry out the experiments that had become extremely essential. Many universities built chemical laboratories to assist in studying the human body by 1846. This was a major advancement that was spearheaded by Justus von Leibig, a German chemist. Technological advancement contributed to improvement of instruments such as thermometer, microscope, and many others. By 1861, numerous theories were formed such as the ‘germ theory’ that was efforts of Robert Koch and Luis Pesteur. Finally, in 1900, many scientific types of equipment were in place and this demanded for scientific principles that contributed to new understanding of the human body.
Describe the development of London’s international trade between 1500 and 1900?
The development of London’s international trade between 1500 and 1900 experienced a greater shift that contributed to major economic development. The financial services during 1500 were relatively below par, however, in later years, several nations saw the need to have financial services improved. By 1600, many nations including London underwent a greater period of advancements that superseded other years. By far, economic improvement was measured in terms of GDP per capita following the Industrial Revolution. Under new leadership roles, the field of business received so much support from the international community.
Many companies were built to add the greater rigor to the trade based view. These were done through several mechanisms that supported trade among many nations. Market evolved over years 1500-1900. One of the most evident integration that took place was the integration of the Mediterranean markets. Great Britain was also instrumental in facilitating the process of integration in the whole Europe. Prices of different good were set, though, depending on the region and prices converged over time as market became better integrated. Many people opted for reshuffling of goods and services (Kennedy, 1989).
By 1700, London was trading wheat from Baltic with Amsterdam and other nations. This was also a process of integration that saw numerous ships being imported from Baltic. Wheat price convergence within the Mediterranean was very evident. The 17th century witnessed the greatest wheat price convergence. In addition, other good were also traded between the North West and Istanbul showing numerous signs of improvement in market integration. Moreover, the Ottoman region also witnessed integration in the prices of wheat and other commodities.
Between 18th and 19th century, many nations suffered from being hybrid powers. This is because several nations divided to fulfill their continental objectives without putting into consideration the interest of others. London and Britain were better placed in the international market and they signed numerous trade treaties such as the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which gave rise to tactful talks for broad-spectrum revisit to status quo (Kennedy, 1989). Generally, the technological and trade advancements were so instrumental in shaping London. It helped improve the lives of people and the general economy of London among other nations.