In a typical situation, various descriptive perspectives can be picked by various groups and explained with regards to the climate or atmosphere the situations create. Arabian Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) is a union that is created by various gulf nations like of Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Oman amongst others. The aspects that brings these nations together is socioeconomic, political, security, and other developmental factors. The connection between the GCC union and the opening remark in this writing is the diversity of perspectives that the issues affecting or favoring the union can be viewed from. In this research paper, private tutoring has been an educational strategy that these union members have pulled off to help in the development of socioeconomic strongholds within high school and college students. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons that have forced the GCC to promote the private tutoring protocol and mode of education. The reason behind the establishment as well as an in-depth study on the matter is carried out in this research to help establish the reasons behind private tutoring within the GCC.
Since 1960s, South Korea, Singapore, and Ireland were some of the nations in the world that showed a steady growth in their respective GDPs. The increased growth rate was not only limited to the 1960s for the case of South Korea, Ireland, and Singapore but alsocontinued steadily for four decades. The fact that these nations aren’t the fastest growing economies any longer is because some or most of them have attained the developed nations’ status. The stories about South Korea, Ireland, and Singapore can be connected to other factors considering the perspective a researcher may come up with. However, in this case, the focus on education systems and role played by the education system is the reason these countries’ GDPs kept growing since the 1960s and have maintained a developed status for long (Nunan, 1992).
Looking at the situation in Arab nations, traditions and myths have been some of the issues that push these nations towards an obvious deviation to socioeconomic issues. The Arab’s nations have for the past few decades been major producers of oil and this has kept their developments steady but considerably uneven. In this case, for countries whose development prospects do not lie in oil, other factors have been considered with disappointing results. The problems facing Arab nations have been centered on the systems of education. With resources that can help lift a nation out of economic turmoil and lack of education, the necessary skill of developing strategies to manage the resource threatens the future of the nation – a situation that has been bothering GCC members for decades (Littlewood, 1999).
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Private tutoring is the act of instructors giving or passing knowledge to students in a more personalized settings rather than a formal one. Advantages of the personalized educational setting are that students get to understand the concepts from a perspective that not only makes sense to them, but also one that they can bond with. However, considering that many government sponsored initiatives are well thought, it is rare for a strategic move struck by numerous nations to fail having benefits. Therefore, with clear knowledge that private tutoring is a positive strategy towards educating the nationals of GCC member states, the reasons behind the move are centered on economic welfare of the region.
The reason why various nations came together to form the GCC was not to be regional friends or to help each other with politics but to find ways of improving the region both academically and economically –a socioeconomic aspect (Littlewood, 1999).
Amongst the GCC, sponsors have been helpful in recognizing potential and helping the students with good academic records to get scholarships in Australian Universities and colleges. However, running a background check on the subject shows that the numbers of students making it to the sponsored programs were very few in the last three decades. In order to improve educational standards and boost the economy of the GCC members states, the problems associated with this phenomenon were identified as lack of good academic performance, problem of learning in English, gaps between assumed knowledge and the nature of high school curriculum, and outmoded pedagogical practice.
Starting with the issue of poor academic performance, the reason GCC member states have resulted in private tutoring programs is to help students with various personal difficulties to obtain knowledge in a more comfortable environment. The various traditional backgrounds and religious backgrounds of students separate each one of the students from the other and therefore call for specialized tutoring. Poor performance has been a problem for the nationals of the GCC member states and as a result, many sponsors do not feel like they have any business volunteering to help high school elites to get specialized qualifications in foreign universities. Given minimum qualifications, based on academic performance, students were unable to meet the required standards therefore failing to attain sponsors’ expectations. In this case, it dawned to GCC that a personalized tutoring setting would help students get over the problems they have with classwork. Besides the sponsor programs, students and their families were disappointed on performance trends hence welcomed the idea of private tutoring with open arms. Considering the fact that academic performance is a variable affected by several elements, the social connection between the student and instructor is consideredone of the elements that built confidence in students.
For an institution to select a candidate who would compete for a vacancy in the institution, a mechanism that filters the numbers to a considerable size is put in place. Academic performance is the universal tool that institutions implement and assess before they can grant vacancies to students. GCC member state nationals have been for the last couple of years been unimpressive in performing to impress overseas institutions, and inspite of sponsorships, students could not make it to the institutions regarding poor performance records.
The protocol of selection that is observed by overseas institutions is one that quantifies the probability of a student making it in the institution regarding his/her academic performance and the potential of that student. However, high school curriculum in specific nation within the GCC does not qualify the students as legitimate candidates because they have passed various tests, hence the need of unifying the educational curriculum within this region. The overseas institutions run a background check on the curriculum viability before letting or allowing students to their systems. Good performance is the only element that overseas institutions look at before settling on who to pick and who to drop. Students have varied abilities and skills that separate them from one another in terms of knowledge transfer and investment. A student with the ambition to take medical course but cannot speak English is at worse place than another with the ability to speak and read in English. The reason English is an element of consideration is because many overseas universities and colleges use English to instruct students. In cases like this, the governments of the GCC member states thought it was wise if students could get private tutoring from instructors with the ability to connect with students and prepare them for a wider and broader scope in attaining knowledge. English is a language as well as a subject that many students thought to benefit from and increase their market range for skills and abilities they learnt from the curriculum (Oxford, 1990).
Learning in English
There are millions of names and phrases that refer to human kidney in various cultural and social settings, but in medical settings, either scientific names or English names for kidney are applied. Learning in English has been a problem for decades to students from all over the world and has had an impact on flexibility and market range for skills. Arabian high schools have not embraced the usefulness of English and this has limited the number of people they post to various international job vacancies. As a potential market for skills and source of income, GCC members introduced the private tutoring program so that students going on with their education can be taught English therefore qualifying them to more technical courses and consideration by overseas institutions.
As a problem, learning in English has not been easy for students, as instructors teaching the subject find it hard to teach a group of students. It is therefore important that the question of learning in English to be addressed in much up-close and personal mean. Private tutoring, being the most viable instructional installment, has several approaches and methods that students can work with. Some of these methods include meetings with personal instructors who teach the students the basics of second language acquisition, family members exposed to the language pass it on to students, and the internet is used as well to teach students English as their second language through automated means. The importance placed in the learning of English is the ability to involve oneself with various educational, professional, and economic issues that are mostly based on English. Learning in English and learning English are different phrases that mean the application of English to study another subject and taking English as a subject for learning respectively. Therefore, learning in English requires input (interaction and conduct with English as second language) in order to make use of various basics of the language and broaden the scope of marketability (Pickard, 1996). GCC member states used this method as a way of expanding the marketability of students and the number of human resources originating from the Arabian Gulf.
Outmoded Pedagogical Practice
Teaching is a profession that requires the connection between the teacher and the student in order to establish a relationship between the two. Currently, the world is transforming to a digital one where use of technology has become the order of the day. People on the other hand, have been exposed to various technologies and studies that have enabled them to be elites with the potential to sustain the emerging changes. On the other hand, teacher-student relationships have changed with time to allow for a close interactive sessions that maximize the timeframes set to accomplish certain academic duties and obligations. However, outmoded (outdated) pedagogical (teaching) practices have enveloped the uniform progressive change that nations and various nations should have. If high schools and other institutions are not willing to change the curriculum to reflect the needs of the students and the pressure the world is putting on them, then alternative methods of teaching, precisely private tutoring are being implemented in both social and formal settings. In this case, the relevance and reason for private tutoring is to break students from outdated and unhelpful teaching practices. On the other hand, private tutoring is aimed at investing time and resources to matters of education that personally matter to individual students (Littlewood, 1999).
Several aspects have affected the teaching and learning modes applied by the Arabic nations and has led to implementation of private tutoring. Given that students represent the future of a nation, GCC member states encourage a personalized teaching mode that address language problems, outmoded teaching practices, poor academic performance, and general economic challenges (Oscarsson, 1997). This research has identified private tutoring as a solution to modern academic problems as well as addressing economic factors that are influenced by nature and modes of teaching. Bottom line, GCC implemented and supports private tutoring to foster change in development like in the case of other nations like South Korea, Ireland, and Singapore.