Teamwork refers to a process whereby a small manageable group of people, usually 3 to 10, with corresponding skills become dedicated to a common rationale and achieve consensus on particular performance objectives and pointers, a working approach, and shared responsibility. The development of effective working relationships in teams is a gradual process which requires considerable time and skills. As Michael Schrage (1996) puts it, "The real basic structure of the workplace is the relationship. Each relationship is itself part of a larger network of relationships. These relationships can be measured along all kinds of dimensions - from political to professional expertise. The fact is that work gets done through these relationships."
One of the pointers of team collaboration that Jones (1992) suggests includes the aptitude to work mutually with a common purpose. All team members have to share a common idea and goals that the team is trying to attain. Teams differ in size, purpose, as well as the span of time they work jointly. However, another aspect of teamwork must be the clear acknowledgement of members’ functions and the roles of other team members. This calls for a competitive team leader who has the skills e.g. intelligence, conceptually skilled, creative, fluent in speaking, diplomatic and tactful to take account of defining a purpose, setting quantifiable goals, forming rules for working, setting plans, and assigning responsibilities. The leader also gives constant advice to team members, supporting and cheering their efforts. Compliments and appreciation to teams for their improvement add up towards sustaining their work.
Yates and Orlikowski (2002) promotes genre systems e.g. training sessions, memos, reports, meetings as a means of structuring collaborative work. The climate of openness and readiness to communicate should be employed as this fosters trust and enhanced decision making activities. Communication should be two-way or multi-way. This includes listening, aiding, and supportive behaviors. Communication exercises should be employed to improve communication skills. The problems teams bump into in these exercises are resolved by communicating well with each other so as to accomplish an ongoing task.
Cooperative efforts by a team can generate outstanding results. The challenge is to shift from the realm of the achievable to the realm of performance. Today, most unions embrace the concept of teamwork. The rationalization is applied to those teams who are enhanced at solving key issues and are trained more speedily and with more outcome than individuals. “Transforming leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality…” (James MacGregor Burns, 2001). Some of the disputes with these procedures of teamwork consist of the complexity with measuring the pointers independently (Jones, 1992: 27). For example, it may be practically unattainable to measure the degree to which every team member contributes to a universal goal that the team is trying to achieve.