The paper is a critical review of the article INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OFCONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS (JANUARY 2012, Vol3, No.9). It discusses the art of leadership and management. It revolves around the professional, ethical, and philosophical aspects that deal with the principles of management. Besides, the perceptions of different authors and researchers are quoted and discussed as a whole in the name of “Authentic Leadership”. Especially, the discussion of the expectation from a management which is different in different cultures is brought about in various sections of the paper. There are three major sections in this journal: Specifications of Leadership, Intercultural Leadership Contingency model, and Managerial Work and Leadership. But, does a culture influence the expectation from the management? If so, how different are they? What is the actual role of a manager? What are his tasks, and how they arefragmented?
The Gallup Leadership Institute (GLI) Summit was held in Omaha, Nebraska, in June 2004, which invited a lot of scholars and practitioners to submit their manuscripts on emergence and development of authentic leadership. The authentic leadership is defined a bit differently in various articles chosen, but most of them focus on one-man leadership. An authentic leader is a person who has an insight of how the organization functions so that he can resolve it easily (Luthans & Avolio, 2003). A leader must motivate the associates in such a way that they do the work with enthusiasm, which, in turn, increases the productivity. A leader must also inspire their followers with his own ways of doing things. Similarly, there are different definitions of the authentic leader from papers chosen. Based on these definitions, the role of an authentic leader is categorized into two categories: task-oriented leadership and people-oriented leadership. While task-oriented leadership is totally concerned about the tasks planning, scheduling, and directive steps for the tasks, the people-oriented leadership deals with providing a perfect platform for the associates to work and takes care of their personal problems too. Besides, the expectations of the representatives of different nationas from their leader also differ. For example, Japanese expect their leader to know the answers related to their work, Americans expect their leader to guide them to find an answer, etc.
Intercultural Leadership Contingency model, a leadership model prepared, is suitable for almost 18 countries. As per this model, leadership is classified into 4 categories: Directional Leadership, Supportive Leadership, Participatory Leadership, and Success-oriented Leadership. The influence of culture on leadership role is very significant. For example, Americans consider CEO as their role model; Chinese consider their head of the family as their role model, etc.
Speak about managerial work and leadership, Carlson says that a manager has lot of issues to look into, and in average, a manager spends 10 minutes on a particular issue, which has been validated over the years. He concludes that managerial work is largely fragmented and will be better if people manage their time. A lot of similar research work of various people like Gulick and Urwick’s POSDCORB (planning, organizing, staffing, directing, co-ordinating, reporting and budgeting), Snyder and Glueck, etc. talks about the leadership role. A manager proves his ability to be a leader only when he has a vision and not just the strategy he adopts to get the thing done.
This paper provides a complete insight of the role of leadership in an organization. It discusses almost every different research work on managerial role and looks at all aspects of feasibility. Firstly, it talks about authentic leadership and its definition as given by many scholars. Then, it talks about the influence of culture over the role of a leader, and later on, it talks about the research works on leadership. The author concludes that there is no general theory which can be applicable to all regions in this world, which is true. The author has tried to establish a theory which provides no general theory. Overall, the analysis of different perceptions was an excellent attempt and an unbiased conclusion is one good point to be noted.
This paper really serves as a base and reference for the future research works on the same subject.