This discussion is on the book by Alexander De Grand titled, “Italian Fascism: Its Origins & Development”. It was first published in 1982 at the Nebraska University Press. The second and third editions of the book were published in 1989 and 2000 respectively. This book’s ISBN number is 0803265786 9780803265783 while its OCLC Number is 246684233. Its publications were all made in English and the book was manufactured in the USA. This paper will mainly discuss the first chapter of the second edition that was published in 1989.
The book has a very extensive, well elaborated and clearly explained literature on the history and development of Fascism in Italy. It gives an excellent account of the Fascist era, giving a brief of pre-fascism in Italy. This helps us understand the personalities and the system of governance before, during, and after Fascism in Italy. It gives us the ability to determine and starkly declare the efficiency and changes that could be attributed to Fascism in the country. Further, the book has a clear definition of Fascism explained at different stages, with the significant changes explained in clear details. Therefore, it was necessary to use the book that has been written with profound competence on the topic and impeccable clarity about Fascist era in Italy. In my opinion, this was the best book that I would have used.
This book is divided into eleven chapters, housed in three major parts. Part one gives a historical background of Fascism starting from 1870 to 1933. This part contains chapters one and two. Chapter one gives the origin of Fascism between 1870 and 1918. Chapter two then explains the post war crisis and the development of Fascism in Italy between 1918 and 1922. This paper will mainly focus on the first part for the period between 1870 and 1922. The second Part contains Chapters three, four, five and six for the period between 1922 and 1935, and is titled The Fascist Regime in Ascendancy, 1922-35. Chapter three covers time between 1922 and 1925 and covers the occurrences that covered between the Movement and the Regime. Chapter four covers between 1926 and 1929 explaining how the regime was created. The relationship between Fascism and the Great Depression of 1930s and how they affected each other is then explained in the fifth chapter that covers the period between 1929 and 1934. Chapter Six takes us back to the period between 1922 and 1935, explaining the foreign policies that were followed during the Fascist period. The third part explains the Downward Spiral of Fascism in Italy between 1935 and 1945 and covers chapters seven to eleven. Chapter seven explains the events between 1935 and 1943 and how Fascism brought a war between the society and the economic status in the country. Chapter eight covers the period between 1936 and 1943, and mainly covers the events that related the foreign policies and Fascism. It explains how the foreign policies were re-oriented and how they brought changes to Fascism. Chapter nine covers the birth of the Italian Social Republic between 1943 and 1945. Chapter ten then gives an elaborate account of the ideologies and the intellectuals that were involved in the political culture of Fascism in Italy. Chapter eleven gives the conclusion, bibliography and the index to the book.
Conclusion to the book
This book’s relevancy in this address of the historical background is in the way it traces the origins of the social stratifications of the Italian society. It identifies a period when the Italian society was finding reason to disintegrate into political, religious and other affiliations. It identifies, for example, the period when the peasants and other low level people had to seek solace in the political union or party called socialist party. These affiliations have remained. They define the present day Italy. A connection with a political party, a religious union and such is a very strong motivation for anyone in the country. In the country, people’s affiliation to various groups is believed to help them channel their rights and be recognized.