The “preface” section is intended in the book to be a short summary of the historical background of fascism. In this section, Mussolini, a ruler in historical era in Italy is mentioned as a point of reference to the origins. As the author hold, it is this person’s strive to influence the average Italian. In this section too, the author expounds on the methods that this originator used. In the view of the author, it was Mussolini’s tactics of using a bended representation in the things that the Italian people were aware of. The view of the author here is that Mussolini appealed to what the people were aware of to create what he wanted them to believe in fascism. The author also holds the mass rallies that Mussolini had as the source of fascisms. In the view of the author, the intentions of Mussolini in starting this movement was to reach into their private life or mind of the Italian people and thus control them. The view of the author in this preface is that it was not about the individual or his beliefs, which made fascism to emerge, but how his beliefs tapped into the economic as well as social development problems which were a reality in the country. The author here seems to hold that the economic promise in the ideology was the main attraction of people and thus why the ideology begun as an ideology embraced by many of the people in the country.
The author also uses the European map and the inclusion of Italy in the map to show its position in the continent and how its position contributed to the development of Fascism. The position also, as depicted by the author, has a significant role in the relations with other countries especially owing to the occurrences such as the First World War and its effects on Italian governance. The author holds that these were the events from 1870 onwards, which made fascism what it was and created the influences seen today in the country. In the view of the author, the social structures as well as economic ramifications were important as they created a soft ground on which the ideology of fascism was encouraged to develop. The basic social structure identified by the author as having been the prod for fascism from the year 1870 is the political structure. Presenting historical occurrences, the author points that in 1870 the country was unified from the acquisition of other areas by the pope, when divisions in the country begun to emerge. The view of the author here is that this unification brought with it a discriminative style as the new governance in the country.
In the view of the author, the electoral process which discriminated some classes of people, especially those in the lower social economic one, was a major cause to tensions and discomfort which necessitated an ideological attachment. From 1870, elite class of Italians led by those in the white–collar and government jobs tended to seek a political control of the country. They thus created laws, which discriminated the lower class from participating in the process of electing who will be their leaders. This, according to the author, was a major cause to the social grievances that ultimately led to the development of Fascism.
In the first through the second chapter, the author seeks to develop on the forces of disenchantment. He tackles the disappointment and grievances of the peasants, the landless people, the industrial workers and many of such from the lower class. The view of the author is that it was this disenchantment from such a diverse populace, which resulted into a full war in the year 1918 to the year 1920. The view of the author is that it is the disenchantment and the war, which gave Mussolini ground to participate in a popular thus major demonstration. This demonstration is held by the author to have ended on the 29th October 1922. In his discussion, the author holds that Mussolini had no new message except his tapping onto what was already popular. In the view of the author, he became the people’s choice for leadership not because of his qualities, but because of his attachment to the ideologies of the lower class. In ending this part, the author holds that when Mussolini came to power, fascism had came into power too as an ideology holding equal representation and a consideration of the rights and privileges of the poor and lower class people. The view of the author is that Mussolini however did not represent these beliefs. This approach has been well explained and proves successful and efficient in explaining.
The author has profound knowledge and high level competence in articulation of issues and does this so well that there is no gap left in his work. He gives a good account of the process of Fascism and its development in a manner that leaves the reader satisfied with the work. Enough references and persons have been used and there has been excellent division of the book into chronological eras and occurrences.
This work helps me understand every detail of the occurrences of Fascism and every attribute that resulted from its being. The author uses the proper language to describe the event and leaves utter satisfaction to the reader and his desirable understanding. He has used a rich and expanse bibliography to his work. He has referred to other people’s works and convinced the reader that the vents that he describes are well at par with the actual happening that occurred during the Fascist era. Furthermore, he convincingly articulates the periods that were not involved in the Fascism and slots them well in the Fascist era. For instance, The Great Depression of the 1930s was an inevitable occurrence in the world history. The author includes this in the book to show the authenticity and reliability of the information that he gives in his work. This way, the reality of the book is unrivalled and reliable. Further, the author has included people in history that could be rarely missed in any historical work from Italy. A person like Mussolini was a great figure at the time and no one could effectively discuss the Italian history without his inclusion.
The book “Italian Fascism: Its Origins & Development” by Alexander De Grand is a solid evidence of the occurrences that happened in Italy. It gives a perfect explanation of the occurrences and effects of Fascism in Italy. It is further made better and reliable by the pre-fascism period discussed at the end of the era. This makes it possible for the reader to fully understand Fascism and its effect on the economic and social beings of the Italian people. The book is also made better by the fact that there are no contradictions with the rest of the available material, especially owing to the fact that the book has made numerous referencing to other historic writers. It, therefore, does not give a different look in the occurrences and knowledge of the reader, but strongly cements the already known facts about the Fascist period. The knowledge acquired in class is, therefore, made authentic and better understood rather than changed. The treatment of the topic in class has been less in depth than what the book explains.