According to Suzie Lee,Georgia Tech Center for Geographic Information Systems (CGIS) and Nancy Green LeighGeorgia Institute of Technology, specializing in economic, urban, and regional development, the effectiveness of metropolitan smart growthpolicies requires an understanding of the role and conditionsof inner ring suburbs. Nevertheless, the issue of the deteriorationof the inner ring suburbs has only recently received significantconsideration by urban scholars and policy makers. In this article,the authors review the literature on metropolitan formationand the smart growth movement to critically assess how wellit characterizes and explain the evolution of inner ring suburbs,as well as to emphasize the role that inner ring suburbs canplay in metropolitan smart growth strategies. They next characterizethe literature specifically focused on inner ring suburbs interms of what it has to offer on defining such areas. Afteridentifying the gaps in the literature, the authors offer amethodology for accurately defining inner ring suburbs and concludewith a discussion of policy for effectively addressing the socioeconomicneeds of the inner ring suburbs within the context of metropolitansmart growth.
Andrew Needham of New York University, New York, NY USA, Allen Dietrich-Ward Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, explains the metropolitan growth and the regional transformation stating that new suburban scholarship has succeeded in incorporatingsuburbs into urban historiography, but it has also implicitlyreinforced an artificial boundary that obscures far-reachingeffects of metropolitan growth. With their singular emphasison decentralization, such analyses that stop at the politicalboundaries of the last "exurb" provide incomplete narrativesof postwar community development. This article explores recenthistoriographical trends with an eye toward synthesizing theapproaches of urban, suburban, and rural scholars into a morecomprehensive model of the "metropolitan region." Case studiesfrom the Southwest and the Upper Ohio Valley provide examplesof the important interconnections between regional communitiesas well as the role of hinterland actors in shaping metropolitangrowth. The essay concludes by offering suggestions on expandingthe current urban/suburban history model to include the ruralhinterland and the advantages of such an approach in betterexplaining the evolution of postwar politics, society, and culture.
Neil Brenner, Department of Sociology and Metropolitan Studies Program, New York University, states the critical overview of contemporary debates on metropolitan governance and region-wide cooperation in US city-regions. Many commentators have interpreted the recent proliferation of metropolitan reform experiments in US city-regions as evidence that a new “regional coalition” is being consolidated or as the expression of a singular, unified and internally coherent political agenda. In contrast to such assumptions, it is argued that contemporary metropolitan regionalist projects in the USA are extremely heterogeneous, both institutionally and politically, and are permeated by significant internal conflicts and contradictions. Contemporary metropolitan regionalist projects are interpreted here as place-specific political responses to the new forms of sociospatial polarization and uneven geographical development that have been crystallizing in US city-regions under conditions of postfordist urban restructuring and neoliberal ,both national and local, state retrenchment. From this perspective, the current explosion of debates on metropolitan cooperation represents not a movement towards a putative “new regionalism” but rather a “new politics of scale” in which local, state-level and federal institutions and actors, as well as local social movements, are struggling to adjust to diverse restructuring processes that are unsettling inherited patterns of territorial and scalar organization within major US city-regions. A concluding section suggests that such metropolitan rescaling projects are redefining the geographies of urban governance throughout the advanced capitalist world.
Thus the urban demographics dealt with the statistics characterizing human populations, the economic growth, race/ethnicity, household composition, educational levels, forces that are driving these trends, that accounts for the development of a nation or a state that restates the basic meaning of the urban demographics.