Hollows Joanne. Feminism, Femininity and Popular Culture. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000. Print.
In this book, the author defines feminism and femininity, and tries to contextualize these concepts to the ideas that people already have. The society acts upon the designated gender roles to determine the prevailing ideas of feminism and femininity. According to Joanne, the ideas presented by the society, serve as a judging tool for all things that different genders are engaged in.
Joanne writes this book trying to give a sight to things that women love. The study carried out showed that women love passive pastimes rather than active pastimes. The media example shows that women spend a lot of time watching TV episodes. The study carried out showed that women kept a steady follow up on television programs (Hollows 47). However, men did not follow these programs, and this showed that these programs had a feminist touch. The same applied to other related media such as reading of romantic magazines and novels, watching romantic comedies and listening to romantic music. Joanne interviewed a number of booksellers, including those selling romantic novels, which confirmed that the greatest number of their customers were women.
It was also found out, that a lot of these things are determined by the background of these people. The consumption and material cultures of people change as per the genders, as well as per the manner of rearing. The concepts of beauty also vary between the genders. For instance, women use a lot of cosmetics to underline their attractiveness which is not common for men.. This shows a clear difference between the two. Therefore, a lot of gender disparities arise because of the societal expectations. However, the factor predetermining both genders is the youth culture. In this case bothe genders are influenced through common interests to fashion, music, etc.
Dooley, Chantelle. “What is a Woman?” Feminist Journal 7 (2004). Print.
In this article, Dooley says that the definitions that are assigned to the term woman are very diverse; they vary depending on the people responding to this question. The author notes that many people view feminism from a gender perspective, and believe that feminism is a world of women that should be constricted to women only. However, Dooley seems to advocate for a view that takes women as part and parcel of the society, stating should be integrated to make sense of the activities in the society (Dooley 25).
Dooley also gives the perceptions that different societies place on the “femaleness” perception of the society. For instance, the western society tends to view femaleness outside the capacities of a woman. It views women as rather weak members of the society. The woman was believed to be a meek, small, and of little significance to the society. In fact, a woman had limited energy, took care of kids, they were incapable of reasoning, and above all they bled every month; thus, this drained their energy. Therefore, there were many reasons to prove that women were weak.
However, Dooley says that these sentiments are long past, and the ideas of a woman have changed, drastically. In the past two decades, women have risen to play vital role in the society. The society has learnt to appreciate the contribution of women, and this has facilitated the development of societies. Therefore, Dooley advocates for a definition of feminism that will include all aspects of the societal life; this term should not just be confined to remind people of the previous sentiments of women; it should also portray women, as people, who have the power to lead the society.
Gedalof, Irene, and Puwar Nirmal “Recalling ‘the Scent of Memory’: Celebrating 100 Issues of Feminist Review” Feminist Review. 100 (March 2012). Print.
In this article, the authors reflect on the things that have passed in gender studies. They also consider the progress made in the perception of women in the 21st century. The reader is taken through the movement which has shaped the plight of women. The authors advocate for more progress in the field of gender studies, and inclusive view of a gender in place of the feminist ideals (Gedalof and Puwar 67).
The authors explore the roles played by the mother figure in the society, and they say that a mother is critical in the society since she drives the family forward; the family is recognized as the principle unit of society. Therefore, the mother, indirectly, rules the society. Therefore, needs to the social stratifications that should recognize the mother as such arise. However, people continue to view women in perspectives that undermine the concept of gender, which is not relevant any more,.since women, as already seen, rule the world.
Gedalof, Irene. “Birth, Belonging and Migrant Mothers: Narratives of Reproduction in Feminist Migration Studies.” Feminist Review 93 (2009): 81–100. Print.
This article draws from philosophical accounts of feminists on issues of reproduction. The data was first acquired from the research done on migrant mothers residing in London. The article argues that the function and place of reproduction has remained under theorized in the scholarly documentations of women's function in the processes of migration. In this article, Irene argues that women should work with a concept that goes beyond childbirth and motherhood. She says that women should also be included in the work of reproducing tradition, culture and systems of belonging. The article also argues that in the field of feminist migration scholars can work on theoretical resources so as to tell more complex stories regarding the function of reproduction in migration. They should also challenge the problematic gendered differences between staying put and travelling, repetition and change that continue to influence some of the accounts of structure operatives in migration studies (Gedalof 82).
The article advocates feminist perspectives since people leave the complexities of migrating mothers to women. The whole society should come to address this issue.
Bennhold, Katrin. “Motherhood as a Retreat to Equality.” The New York Times 23 August 2011. Print.
In this article, the author gives a view on the plight of mothers who cannot go to work simply because they are nursing their young ones. She says that she has witnessed a lot of mothers who spend time in parks with their kids. Some of these mothers have university degrees, but their capacities to work are undermined by motherhood. The author reveals many emotions on the subject, thus to show the reader that the plight of these mothers should be addressed.
The article deals with the situation of mothers in France and Germany, the first ones are able to work albeit their maternity; on contrary, mothers in Germany are not able to work due to lack of time. By comparing the two countries, the author is drawing the lines to which one country discriminates on women. She seems to suggest that Germany, should put clear policies that favor mothers to work. The article argues that since French women work, this should be applied to other countries to enable mothers to do the same (Bennhold 43).
The gift of motherhood should not be a barrier towards the labor rights of the people. In fact, mothers should work to support their children. It will also contribute a lot to the growth of economic strength of the society since a lot of people will be contributing to the progress of the economy.
Barbara, Love. Feminists Who Changed America, 1963-1975. University of Illinois Press, 2006. Print.
The author gives a list of feminists who played a major role in the transformation of the feminist movements in America. These were men and women who sought for equal rights for both women and men, and advocated for a society based on equality. These people crafted many theories of feminism, promoting the ideas that people should always strive to get the best society. According to adherents of this idea, the society then will be characterized by equality between the genders.
These people advocated for social stratification that will enable people of both genders to hold equal positions in the society. They also sought for representation of both genders in different matters in the society. It is also believed that there are no preserved spaces for men or women in the society, thus, anyone qualified can take up that social place and act for the good of all the society (Barbara 14).
The feminists in this book believed that all people should be allowed to take part in the development of the nation. They should not be discriminated in terms of gender, class or religion. These people foresaw a society that will respect all people regardless of gender. The main idea of the book is that it is the contribution of a person for the good of all people which is important; the position that a person held did not matter unless that person performed the duties bestowed on him in a good manner.