Neurolinguistic programming is all about the human character and behavior in relation to the interaction with the surrounding and one another (Bridoux, 2000). Upon interaction, human beings show various characters that are biological and come in reflex. These unavoidable reactions are essential during interrogation. They help to extract and filter vital information from interviewees during an interrogation.
Interrogation is a daunting task if not well mastered. However, mastering of basic concepts of interrogation makes it more successful task to interrogators. A fundamental aspect is the knowledge of the ability to recognize the deception.
Deception is a tricky thing for interrogators to identify. Interviewees who tell lies throughout their narration make it easy for interrogators to recognize the deception. However, most interviewees tend to tell the truth in their narrations and skip places of the narration to hide the vital information. By this, the interviewee did not lie, but never told the truth. It is, therefore, crucial to have knowledge of claws of such interviewees by successfully identifying tricks they use.
Deception is achievable by omitting information. In this case, an interviewee may use subordinating clauses that enable avoiding the vital information (O'Connor, 1993). An example is the use of phrases such as, “after, and then…” An excellent example is a kid reporting some incidence, the kid might say, “I was playing in the field when my friend came and then he slapped me.” The use of the phrase “then” indicates that the kid is hiding vital information of what happened before the slapping incidence. It is possible that the kid initiated the cause of the slap.
Camouflaging words might also be deceptive. This is a case where an interviewee uses phrases that conceal the truth (O'Connor, 1993). This takes a practical example when there was a conversation within the incidence. Words used to describe a conversation tell a lot about the relationship of the parties involved. Words used in this case include talked, discussed, argued, had words and others. An important clue of how to identify the relationship that was in existence includes monitoring of the interviewee’s use of that distance themselves with the second party. Saying “we talked” is different from “he and I talked.” The former portrays that there existed a positive relationship while the latter indicates an unhealthy relationship. It is also necessary to identify who initiated a conversation in this case.
Interviewees also tend to use passive voices to achieve the deception. This distances themselves from the acts they did. Such reports include the use of sentences such as “a stone was thrown…” the interrogator should probe further to know who threw the stone, as it could be the interviewee (Dilts, 1980).
The use of text bridges is common in deception. These are words that bridge a gap between two truths and a lies omitted in between them. Such words include although, as long as, while and others (O'Connor, 1993). Of importance, too, is the use of uncompleted action verbs. These verbs indicate that some vital information is missing in the interviewee’s narration. A perfect example is an interviewee who says,” I started to go,” to imply that he left the scene and ends his narration. The word started indicates that something else happened after “starting” and the real “going.” Investigators should probe further to identify the information hidden.
Body language says a lot that an interviewee tries to hide in an interview. An interviewer needs to be in control of the interview to minimize this. This includes the tone, time and location. The place should be free from distracters to read the body language of the interviewee correctly. Some indicators of deception include sweating, increase in pulse rate, avoiding contact, touching of the noise by an interviewee, dry mouth and avoidance of the eye contact. An interviewee, who tries to control these signs, is noticeable by the stress encountered during the process. Upon witnessing these gestures, further probe on the matter under is necessary. Relaxation of the head, chest and shoulders is a vital sign from the interviewee. This shows readiness for an interviewee to confess (Bridoux, 2000).