The endocrine system is a group of glands that through secretions of chemical products called hormones are able to regulate the body function. This way, the system keeps watch and coordinates all the body systems. Endocrine glands can be differentiated from exocrine glands, which release secretions into the skin or those located in the mouth in that endocrine glands release more than 20 hormones directly into the bloodstream from where they are transported to other cells of the body.
The glands that make up the human endocrine system are: pituitary gland, hypothalamus, Thyroid, adrenal glands, pineal body, parathyroid, reproductive glands in which the testes and ovaries belong. In the lower part of the central part of the brain is the hypothalamus. These specialized cells are links between the endocrine and nervous systems. Using its Nerve cells,the hypothalamus maintains control of the pituitary gland, . this is done by either stimulating or suppress the production of hormone secretions from the pituitary.
The Pituitary glands are located below the hypothalamus and the gland maintains control of other glands. Some of the hormones produced by the anterior lobe are growth hormones, whose functions are stimulating of body tissues and also the body's ability to utilize nutrients and minerals. Prolactin activates the production of milk during milk production in women during lactation. The work of the thyrotrophic is to stimulate the thyroid glands to enable them produce thyroid hormones. Another hormone, endorphin produced by the pituitary is the body's natural painkiller.
The thyroid glands are located in the front neck. The hormones that are secreted are thyroxin and triodothyronine. These two control metabolism rate. The other glands, Parathyroid, release regulates blood calcium levels through secretion of the parathyroid hormone. The Adrenal Glands are located on top of each kidney. The adrenal cortex part of the glands, have the important function to regulate the salt/water balance in the body while the inner part, adrenal medulla, secret hormones whose functions include stimulation of blood pressure through the heart rate depending on the body's stress level.
Estrogens are secreted by the ovaries. These hormones stimulate development of female specific characteristics. The testicles on the other hand secrete androgens which are important for male development.Another gland located in the brain is the pineal gland which is believed to regulate mating and day/night. Hormones responsible for stimulation of production of T-lymphocytes, which assist in body defense, are produced in thymus gland glands located on the neck.
If I had to lose an endocrine gland I would choose to lose parathyroid glands. These are responsible for production of calcium. I would choose these because unlike others like the adrenal glands have not a very focal function in the body functioning. Loss parathyroid glands will result to deficiency of calcium in the body and consequently, the body sources it from the bones which may result to twitching, spasms, convulsions that may result to death.
The effects from the loss include, Pseudo-hyperparathyroidism (PTH). This is the word for the condition of low calcium levels and a resulting phosphorus levels. Another disorder that is closely related to PHT is Hypomagnesaemia which is characterized by low magnesium levels. Since magnesium is an important element for the parathyroid cells to keep PTH normal.
To keep the calcium and magnesium levels at the equilibrium, the patient would be
required to take Vitamin D and calcium supplements to treat hyperparathyroidism. When the loss of activity PTH is hypomagnesaemia, the treatment will be taking magnesium supplementation.
The endocrine systems are very important to keeping the body functioning properly. The glands range from the very central pituitary glands that keep the other glands functional to the others like thyroid glands and pineal and reproductive glands. The endocrine system is very important to keeping the body in check and removal of any of the glands will result to serious problems that could result to death. Medical intervention has however made it possible to control these. Using artificial hormones and nutrients, like calcium and insulin to control low levels of insulin due to failure of the adrenal glands.