Anthropology is the study of how man came to be and how he conducts himself in a society. Conducting himself in the society means his social relationship with other primates and fellow human beings. In addition, anthropology also includes how societies develop and how different cultures come to be. Anthropology is divided into four parts:
a) Physical anthropology which deals with human population over time. For instance, there is the trend of population growth and its effect on the environment.
b) Archaeology which is the study of material used by human beings over time, for example, lighting the fire through rubbing sticks together during the stone-age period.
c) Linguistic anthropology which deals with the development of human language over a period of time. It also studies how human beings communicate either verbal or non-verbal to express themselves.
d)cultural anthropology, which uses, several methods to compare a variety of cultures in terms of political, economic and social organizations.
Evolution, on the other hand, is how man has been developing over a long time. Man has evolved into the modern man through a series of stages. First was the ape like stage where man was in actual sense an ape. He has come through various stages tom the upright man that he is today. The modern man that exists today is an all knowing person that did not exist in the last decade and millennium. Man has improved in infrastructure, technology and even the way of interaction in the society. For example in the modern world, we have mobile phones, which were unheard of, in the 16th century. The Wright brothers who invented the Airplanes never once believed that a plane can fly in a speed of more than 100 km/hr because the passengers would suffocate. In today's world a plane carrying more than eight hundred passengers travels in a speed exceeding six hundred kilometers per hour. This shows how brains have been evolving over time.
This oversight on evolution and anthropology leads us to imagine how man will have evolved in the year 1,002,003AD which is an estimation of one Million years. We, therefore, wonder how human beings would look like in the next one million years. The principles of evolution suggest several ways in which the two forms of human would be like. First due to genetic mutation, which is, paramount in most countries, in the world, human beings will end up having no legs. Evolution theory suggested that as man evolved and realized several uses of his body parts they began to put them into use.
The tails, which were, believed to be part of the evolving man, began to disappear because of disuse. Man had realized that he could use hands to grasps things and, therefore, did not see the necessity of using the tails to grasp things. In the next one million years, therefore, human beings present will have no legs. This is because most, of their actions will be performed while seated down due to the technological infrastructure that is on the rise. Most activities performed by man will be done by computers and other time machines. It will be about pressing buttons to get what you want. If a person wants a glass of water, then he or she just presses a button and the glass controlled by machines will fetch the water and brings to you. If one wants to go to bed, the chair he is sitting on will carry him to bed. So then what quality will legs be doing to man? This means then that legs will disappear slowly by slowly just like tails which disappeared in apes so as to be human beings.
Other physical characteristics of human beings at the time will be a large torso and stomach. This is being the result of sitting for long hours in front of machines. This is because they eat while operating the machines, concentration of fat will be the upper part of the body. So the human beings at the time will have no legs and will have a fat upper part.
The next characteristic is that human beings at the time will have streamlined fingers because of working with computers typing. The neck will be longer than now and bend because of working with machines. This type of human being will have to adapt to the environment that he has created. The other hominid present will be a group of Homo sapiens, which will almost likely be having the present characteristics that human beings have. Just like the evolution principles where it takes over one million years for apes to evolve to human beings, apes present now will be human beings by then. The two hominid will be competing for resources.
The first hominid, which, has been tuned into being by machines will be a super intelligent human being. Just the way most inventors in the 5th century could not have believed that anyone will have furthered there inventions, this hominid will have added a lot on inventions done in the 21st century. For example, cell phones are now used to communicate and perform numerous monetary and other transactions. There is a possibility that electricity can also be passed from one person to the next. If a person's phone battery is empty, then a person can forward to him some of his charge.
These two hominid can relate in several ways. First is that, with the invention of time machines, the second hominid can read into the future. That is after some time they will also have evolved into super intelligent human beings and lives like the first hominid. Why is this so? This is because the first hominid was once an ape walking on all fours and having a tail. After one million years, they had evolved, became intelligent and walked with two legs. In the next million years, they will not walk. With this trend, the apes now will at one point have no legs.
The second hominid will be amazed at the then super intelligent being and wondering how He could have come up with the several inventions that will be present at the time.
The two hominid will almost not interact because of several things. One is that the language will be different. At the time, the super intelligent hominid will have one language amongst them. Most words will have evolved in the sense that some words will not be understood. For example, landline telephone lines will be words that will no longer be used. Who knows, mobile cell phones could also be a thing of the past. With the inventions of time machines, therefore, backward time travel will be possible. The super intelligent hominid will be able to retrieve information and other things stored from the past. Any human being will not believe that they once stood up because they do not have legs.
The second hominid will be amazed to find that they once walked in fours. The invention of time machines will act as a way of revisiting the past and trying to figure out what the future holds. Social relationship between this hominid will be courted by a number of things, for hominids to evolve; there must be the difference in traits. A trait is one that is genetically modified. It is what is passed from one human being to the next and is not modified by the environment. An example of trait that can be inherited is texture of hair. Some traits can survive in different environments. For these two hominids to continue surviving, they have to exchange traits through cross breeding. This will ensure that the resultant young ones have different traits that will enable them adapt to different environmental factors.
Selective pressures will also determine how these two hominid are going to survive. It is an environmental factor. It can be as a result of various environmental factors or through interaction with fellow hominid. A selective pressure engineered by the environment is a hominid's ability to survive intense heat. This is because of global warming there will be extreme heat, and one type of hominid might not be suited to adapt to such heat. This can be countered by cross breeding. In this case the dominant genes will manifest it, and if it is better suited to the environment the hominid will survive. An example of interaction between organisms is the ability to survive each other, for example, adapting to critics from fellow hominids.
Random mating among the two hominids might result in genetic drift. This is a result of drift in gene combination. After a certain period of time, when a gene becomes more common than the others then that trait will slowly become more popular until it becomes popular in a population. For example if the two hominid mate and there in difference in legs, is the factor, then maybe those with legs become more and more dominant ant the other hominid without legs is slowly removed from population until they exist no more.
Evolution can occur through natural selection. This is the ability of hominid to adapt to nature. Nature will choose those best suited to it. If the super intelligent hominid cannot adapt to extreme temperatures because of thin skin layer caused by ingestion of harmful chemicals, then he will gradually be faced out. If also, on the other hand, the second hominid cannot adapt to technological changes, then they will be gradually faced out. When all these occur the hominid that will survive will then best adapt to the environment. This is how the two hominid came to be because of adapting to the environment.
Humans have a super developed brain that can reason, communicate, meditate and solve problems. This mental ability and a straight posture that give the hands the freedom to manipulate objects has allowed man to make a substantial use of tools than any other primate in the world. This can, therefore, be explained that with man's restlessness to invent more tools in the current world what will it be in the next one million years. If now we have canals in the sea, that vehicles can pass, and houses built near seas then next we will have houses in water bodies and even paths in the air that vehicles can use.
Human beings are social creatures. They are competent in using language to express themselves, exchanging views and organizing themselves in a certain manner. They create social ties composed of competitors and those who cooperate with them right from their relatives to the rest of the nation. These have established a wide variety of values, attributes, rituals and a way of behaving.
Human beings are widespread in the entire world. Their population seems to be growing fat every year. With this rate of population growth and the human fingers that itch to invent objects, there is a probability that by the year 1,000,2003AD some part of the population will be living in the planet Mars. This is because there will not be enough space to accommodate all the human beings.
Human beings are also known for their desire to comprehend and affect their environment. They do so through trying to explain and manipulate things through religion, philosophy, myths and science. This desire has led to development of several modernized equipment and skills, which arte then passed on from one group of people to the other culturally. Human beings are the only animals who can cook, wear clothes and use several technologies. This shows that there will be other values, norms and technological ideas that will probably be carried down to the next generation living in the year 1,000,2003AD. Through all these the result is that the next descendants will be healthier and more intelligent than we are. This is because all genetic problems will have been done away with through mingling. What might be the only thing that will continue to evolve is mental ability.
Human beings are organized in some form of political structure. There are different organizations like the British structure, American Structure, the French structure of governance and so on. For many years, human beings have sorted themselves according to race and culture. They have formed their own political structures governed by race. Most of the powerful countries colonized other countries and imposed on them their cultures, values and political structures. This shows some form of evolution among human beings. Therefore, through migration and cultural intermarriage there is a possibility that all human beings will be governed by one political system by the year 1,002,003AD.
Morality is another aspect that has been undergoing evolution over time. For instance in the family institution, it was almost a taboo to divorce a wife or husband, but now people get married, and in less than twenty four hours they are divorcing. What will it be in the next one million years? Sexual morality is what is next. In Africa for example, sex was a taboo, and it would not be an open discussion between parents and there children. In these modern days, it has become a topic of discussion, and one will find young people and their parents discussing it openly. This explains what will almost happen in a million years time tat human beings can have sex with animals from different species.
In conclusion, therefore, human beings are still evolving although not physically, but, if we adhere to the principles of evolution we can still believe that at some point, in a human lifetime, it will occur. Human beings also are social animals, and they interact. When they interact there are several ideas that will be exchanged. These ideas are what might be passed down to other generations.
The main thing to note here is that whether there is physical evolution or not, what will continue to develop is the intellectual capacity of man. This because of skills passed down to another generation which might not have been well executed in the previous generation. The new generation develops on the skill and passes it down to the next generation.
All these issues come to the fact that, in the next million years, man will have evolved mentally and will use time machines to record and store information. The information will then be retrieved in the future to discuss what has transpired in man's history and to gauge what is still to take place later.