This refers to the proposition made delineating that U.S is very different from other nations in the scope of having an authentic world mission of spreading democracy and liberty. It does not spell that U.S is quantitatively well when compared to other nations or having a sense of superiority but instead accentuate that United States is different based on qualitative measures (Carnes & John, 98). In relation to this, Exceptionalism in America is based on the emergence of the nation from the time of revolution to becoming “the first new nations” according to the words of political scientists to become fully independent apart from Iceland and growing the American ideology uniquely on the basis individualism, egalitarianism, laissez-faire and populism (Carnes & John, 105). The term has been used since it was coined in 1920s and was very common among Soviet Leaders to foster their heretical belief that United States of America was free from Marxist laws because of industrial capacity, natural resources and lack of rigid class distinction (Carnes & John, 325).
What economic and Intellectual factors promoted U.S imperialism in 19th century?
First, United States sought to utilize investment opportunities especially produce in Hawaii as well as mines existing in Philippines. The territories that were oversees had cheap labor force would could enhance production at a relatively cheaper cost Additionally, the foreign lands were endowed with lands full of raw materials that could be used in American manufacturing sectors of the economy. Intellectual factors that promoted imperialism include; the need to protect the overseas territories such as Alaska, Midway Island, Samoa, Hawaii and Guam, religious reasons whereby the American missionaries were after converting inhabitants of foreign lands and the growth and development of United States Navy is considered to have catalyzed imperialism.
What factors combined to precipitate U.S war with Spain in 1898 and then with Filipinos who resisted U.S rule of their islands? What controversies at home did the war provide?
Oppression of Cubans by Spanish became the throbbing factors to this war together with the growing public opinion. Americans got angry after watching Spanish atrocities on Cuba and sought grounds to intervene. The war finally exploded following the mysterious sinking of U.S battleship known as Maine in the Havana harbor and political pressure amount on President William Mckinley to go into war against his wishes. In Philippine, the war arose out of quest for independence by the Filipino people. It was part of the struggle for independence after Philippine revolution. Controversies arose in United States from Republicans who were against the war through Anti-imperialist league formed in 15th June, 1898 with the view that occupation by United States could instigate a change of cultural landscape of the islands since the people had to accept causalities of between 34, 000 and 1million (Carnes & John, 187).
How did Japan challenge the influence of European powers and U.S in Asia? How did U.S policy makers respond to that?
Japan challenged the Influence of U.S and European nations by attacking Pearl Harbor. As a result, the Policy makers in United States of America decided that U.S joins World War 2 to fight against the Japanese Empire together with all its allies such as Italy and Nazi Germany. In a fierce response, America bombed Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan.
What was the significance of Lusitania?
Sinking of Lusitania, the British Ocean Liner prompted United States to enter World War II against Germany. This was after loss of 128 American lives and Germany was at the peak of committing atrocities characterized by sinking of ships that were headed to England. This means it aroused United States congress to declare war against Germany.
What was Zimmerman Telegram?
This was diplomatic proposal passed in 1917 from Germany to Mexico outlining strategies to go to war with U.S. The diplomatic proposal was intercepted by the British intelligence and decoded the message. Consequently, the revelation of the message contents outraged the public opinion in America helping to generate more support and grounds for U.S to officially declare war against Germany. The coded telegram message was dispatched from the office of Arthur Zimmermann, the foreign Secretary of Germany. With this, Germany thought of drawing United States into war as its ally. It also instructed the ambassador to work towards breaking the existing alliance between Japan and Germany. Mexico ignored the proposal in fear of United States.
What were the causes of World War I and how did the war progress on the Western front?
Cause of this include; formation of mutual defense alliances between Russia and Serbia, Japan and Britain, France and Russia and Britain, Belgium, Britain and France which could pull them into war, increase in imperialism characterized by desire for fresh territorial grounds, competition and confrontation, militarism characterized by arms race more so in Germany, nationalism and the immediate cause which is assassination of Archduke Ferdinand from Austria-Hungary. The war progressed to Western Front after Germany invaded Belgium and Luxembourg and took military control of industrial regions in France.
What role did U.S hope to play as a neutral power? What factors undercut the neutrality? Why U.S did finally entered the War?
United States proclaimed neutrality as a policy with an ultimate goal of brokering peace and sending Colonel House, a top aide in consecutive missions to Belligerents. Overconfidence towards gaining victory hampered their desire for peace after other nations ignored their attempts. American neutrality was undercut when German U-Boat sank Lusitania, unarmed British ship causing the death of 128 Americans. This was a show of Brutality from Germans. U.S finally declared entered War after German submarines sank 7 U.S merchant ships and the congress unanimously voted after the proposition.
In What ways did the war transform the economy, society and politics in U.S?
After World War I, there was a boom in industries in U.S as manufacturers needed to keep the pace of production up in order to support the war. New technologies were also coined in efforts to aid manufacturing sectors in meeting the increasing demands from the people and government. Besides, more employment opportunities opened up especially for African-Americans and women in absence of American men. Urbanization also took place immensely. Boom in industries translated to the American economy at large. In politics, the war opened avenues for open diplomacy, removal of all economic barriers and creation of League of Nations. Moreover, the 19th Amendment was passed after the war which gave the women right to vote the 18th amendment which guaranteed the Congress full authority to impose ban on transport and sale of intoxicated beverages. The war also made certain political movements not to be tolerated any more in U.S.
What were the flaws of Treaty of Versailles? To what extent did Wilson succeed in influencing the development of the treaty?
The treaty is attributed to have increase German aggression in World War II. The flaws include;
Limiting German Army to only one hundred thousand men and large segment of western German was demilitarized. It also forbade Germany from owning a military aircraft, naval units and poison gas
High demands of reparations from Germany leading to inflation that made the German economy to collapse and a great depression was experienced.
Rhineland and Saarland occupation angered the German made Hitler to embrace the idea of free living
Germany war solely blamed for the war under Article 231
Opened avenues for Anti-Semitism after it turned out that the signatory to the treaty representing Germany was a Jew.
President Wilson played a key role in treaty by drafting fourteen points that helped in shaping world opinion. His main concern was to rebuild the European economy, promote free trade, create appropriate mandates for the former colonies, encourage self-determination more so create League of Nations. President Wilson also opposed the manner in which Germany was treated but France and Britain outmaneuvered him.
What factors led to treaty rejection by the U.S senate?
U.S senate rejected the treaty on the grounds of lacking reservations more so on Article X involving the power granted to League of Nations to make war without authorization by United States Congress. President Wilson played a great deal in establishment of the treaty and that become a reason for rejection since the irreconcilables in the senators were his bitter enemies
Chicago race riots
This Riot refers to a major racial conflict that started in Chicago, Illinois on 27th July, 1919 to 3rd August, 1919. The after math of the riot was characterized by death and injury of dozens of people. It is regarded as one of the worst riots during the Red Summer period having featured a combination of prolonged murder, arson and looting thus becomes the worst ever scenario in the historical map of Illinois. It was caused by competition among most new groups which overcrowded in a limited space.
What were “Palmer raids?”
These were attempts by Justice Department in U.S to makes arrest and deportation of radical leftists more so anarchists from U.S (Carnes & John, 258). The activity took place under the leadership of Mitchell Palmer which led to deportation of over 500 foreigners.
Who were Sacco and Vanzetti?
These were anarchists suspected and later convicted of killing 2 men during armed robbery incident in 1920 in a shoe factory in Massachusetts in U.S. The duo was executed on 27th August, 1927 following a controversial trial.
What was “Dollar Diplomacy?”
This was the effort by U.S president William Howard to enhance his aims in East Asia and Latin American by the use of economic power to guarantee giving loans to foreign nations.
Discuss the New KKK
The new Ku Klux Klan is a specter of a group with a legacy of terrorizing 6 generations of African Americans in U.S. The main agenda of the new KKK is to frustrate the efforts of blacks who intend to defect out of Democratic Party in U.S. Their tactics involve ridiculing, challenging ethnic pride and violence. Unlike the early who used burning nooses and crosses, they prefer haranguing from media, political operatives and bloggers posing as civilian citizens. The new KKK is also welcome in all government quarters and media.
What was Harlem renaissance?
This was a cultural movement that is known to have spanned a decade after 1920. It was meant to overt racial pride through the overall idea of New Negro who by art, intellect, literature production and music could manage to challenge the marauding stereotypes and racism by promoting social integration, socialist politics and racial integration (Carnes & John, 401).
Who was Marcus Garvey?
Garvey was renowned Jamaican political leader, entrepreneur, publisher, journalist and orator who became as staunch proponent of Pan-Africanism and Black Nationalism movements. He is the founder of Black Star Line which was a segment of Black-to Africa movement that stimulated returning of African diaspora to their true ancestral lands.
What was social welfare liberalism?
This was the belief outlining inclusion of social foundation in liberalism. It believed in legitimate role of a state that include tackling social and economic issues such as education, welfare and health care while also expanding both civil and political rights. It dictates harmony with individual freedom.
How did President Hoover respond to economic emergency? Why did he choose the course of action he did?
He responded by getting more people back to work instead of granting a direct relief. Hoover established “The President’s Emergency Committee for Employment” in 1930 purposely to coordinate all efforts initiated by local welfare agencies. He also set The Finance Reconstruction Commission and Glass-Steagall Act and Emergency Relief and Construction Act to monitor the economy especially finance. President Hoover chose this course of action to alleviate harsh economic environment during the great depression.